Friday, January 4, 2019

American Anthropological Association Statement on Race

American Anthropological Association
Statement on Race 

May 1998
The following statement was adopted by the Executive Board of the American Anthropological Association, acting on a draft prepared by a committee of representative American anthropologists. It does not reflect a consensus of all members of the AAA, as individuals vary in their approaches to the study of "race." We believe that it represents generally the contemporary thinking and scholarly positions of a majority of anthropologists.

In the United States both scholars and the general public have been conditioned to viewing human races as natural and separate divisions within the human species based on visible physical differences. With the vast expansion of scientific knowledge in this century, however, it has become clear that human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups. Evidence from the analysis of genetics (e.g., DNA) indicates that most physical variation, about 94%, lies within so-called racial groups. Conventional geographic "racial" groupings differ from one another only in about 6% of their genes. This means that there is greater variation within "racial" groups than between them. In neighboring populations there is much overlapping of genes and their phenotypic (physical) expressions. Throughout history whenever different groups have come into contact, they have interbred. The continued sharing of genetic materials has maintained all of humankind as a single species.

Physical variations in any given trait tend to occur gradually rather than abruptly over geographic areas. And because physical traits are inherited independently of one another, knowing the range of one trait does not predict the presence of others. For example, skin color varies largely from light in the temperate areas in the north to dark in the tropical areas in the south; its intensity is not related to nose shape or hair texture. Dark skin may be associated with frizzy or kinky hair or curly or wavy or straight hair, all of which are found among different indigenous peoples in tropical regions. These facts render any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations both arbitrary and subjective.

Historical research has shown that the idea of "race" has always carried more meanings than mere physical differences; indeed, physical variations in the human species have no meaning except the social ones that humans put on them. Today scholars in many fields argue that "race" as it is understood in the United States of America was a social mechanism invented during the 18th century to refer to those populations brought together in colonial America: the English and other European settlers, the conquered Indian peoples, and those peoples of Africa brought in to provide slave labor.

From its inception, this modern concept of "race" was modeled after an ancient theorem of the Great Chain of Being, which posited natural categories on a hierarchy established by God or nature. Thus "race" was a mode of classification linked specifically to peoples in the colonial situation. It subsumed a growing ideology of inequality devised to rationalize European attitudes and treatment of the conquered and enslaved peoples. Proponents of slavery in particular during the 19th century used "race" to justify the retention of slavery. The ideology magnified the differences among Europeans, Africans, and Indians, established a rigid hierarchy of socially exclusive categories underscored and bolstered unequal rank and status differences, and provided the rationalization that the inequality was natural or God-given. The different physical traits of African-Americans and Indians became markers or symbols of their status differences.
As they were constructing US society, leaders among European-Americans fabricated the cultural/behavioral characteristics associated with each "race," linking superior traits with Europeans and negative and inferior ones to blacks and Indians. Numerous arbitrary and fictitious beliefs about the different peoples were institutionalized and deeply embedded in American thought.

Early in the 19th century the growing fields of science began to reflect the public consciousness about human differences. Differences among the "racial" categories were projected to their greatest extreme when the argument was posed that Africans, Indians, and Europeans were separate species, with Africans the least human and closer taxonomically to apes.

Ultimately "race" as an ideology about human differences was subsequently spread to other areas of the world. It became a strategy for dividing, ranking, and controlling colonized people used by colonial powers everywhere. But it was not limited to the colonial situation. In the latter part of the 19th century it was employed by Europeans to rank one another and to justify social, economic, and political inequalities among their peoples. During World War II, the Nazis under Adolf Hitler enjoined the expanded ideology of "race" and "racial" differences and took them to a logical end: the extermination of 11 million people of "inferior races" (e.g., Jews, Gypsies, Africans, homosexuals, and so forth) and other unspeakable brutalities of the Holocaust.

"Race" thus evolved as a worldview, a body of prejudgments that distorts our ideas about human differences and group behavior. Racial beliefs constitute myths about the diversity in the human species and about the abilities and behavior of people homogenized into "racial" categories. The myths fused behavior and physical features together in the public mind, impeding our comprehension of both biological variations and cultural behavior, implying that both are genetically determined. Racial myths bear no relationship to the reality of human capabilities or behavior. Scientists today find that reliance on such folk beliefs about human differences in research has led to countless errors.
At the end of the 20th century, we now understand that human cultural behavior is learned, conditioned into infants beginning at birth, and always subject to modification. No human is born with a built-in culture or language. Our temperaments, dispositions, and personalities, regardless of genetic propensities, are developed within sets of meanings and values that we call "culture." Studies of infant and early childhood learning and behavior attest to the reality of our cultures in forming who we are.

It is a basic tenet of anthropological knowledge that all normal human beings have the capacity to learn any cultural behavior. The American experience with immigrants from hundreds of different language and cultural backgrounds who have acquired some version of American culture traits and behavior is the clearest evidence of this fact. Moreover, people of all physical variations have learned different cultural behaviors and continue to do so as modern transportation moves millions of immigrants around the world.

How people have been accepted and treated within the context of a given society or culture has a direct impact on how they perform in that society. The "racial" worldview was invented to assign some groups to perpetual low status, while others were permitted access to privilege, power, and wealth. The tragedy in the United States has been that the policies and practices stemming from this worldview succeeded all too well in constructing unequal populations among Europeans, Native Americans, and peoples of African descent. Given what we know about the capacity of normal humans to achieve and function within any culture, we conclude that present-day inequalities between so-called "racial" groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances.
[Note: For further information on human biological variations, see the statement prepared and issued by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1996 (AJPA 101:569-570).]

AAA Position Paper on Race: Comments?

indian child handcuffs
As a result of public confusion about the meaning of "race," claims as to major biological differences among "races" continue to be advanced. Stemming from past AAA actions designed to address public misconceptions on race and intelligence, the need was apparent for a clear AAA statement on the biology and politics of race that would be educational and informational. Rather than wait for each spurious claim to be raised, the AAA Executive Board determined that the Association should prepare a statement for approval by the Association and elicit member input.

Commissioned by the Executive Board of the American Anthropological Association, a position paper on race was authored by Audrey Smedley (Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 1993) and thrice reviewed by a working group of prominent anthropologists: George Armelagos, Michael Blakey, C. Loring Brace, Alan Goodman, Faye Harrison, Jonathan Marks, Yolanda Moses, and Carol Mukhopadhyay. A draft of the current paper was published in the September 1997 Anthropology Newsletter and posted ont the AAA website for a number of months, and member comments were requested. While Smedley assumed authorship of the final draft, she received comments not only from the working group but also from the AAA membership and other interested readers. The paper above was adopted by the AAA Executive Board on May 17, 1998, as an official statement of AAA's position on "race."

Thursday, November 22, 2018

A Bum's Christmas By H.L. MENCKEN

A Bum's Christmas
Printed in The Wall Street Journal Editorial page - December 24, 1998

H.L. Mencken (1880-1956), the legendary Baltimore newspaperman, wrote the following story, originally entitled "Stare Decisis," for the New Yorker. It was published as a book in 1948. To mark the book's 50th anniversary, we present Journal readers with a slightly abbreviated version of Mencken's classic tale.
© Copyright, Alfred A. Knopf Inc.

Despite all the snorting against them in works of divinity, it has always been my experience that infidels--or freethinkers, as they usually prefer to call themselves--are a generally estimable class of men, with strong overtones of the benevolent and even of the sentimental. This was certainly true, for example, of Leopold Bortsch,Totsaufer [customers' man] for the Scharnhorst Brewery, in Baltimore, forty-five years ago. . . .

"He was a sincere friend to the orphans, the aged, all blind and one-legged men, ruined girls, opium fiends, Chinamen, oyster dredgers, ex-convicts, the more respectable sort of colored people, and all the other oppressed and unfortunate classes of the time, and he slipped them, first and last, many a substantial piece of money.
Nor was he the only Baltimore infidel of those days who thus shamed the churchly. Indeed, the name of one of his buddies, Fred Ammermeyer, jumps into my memory at once. Fred and Leopold, I gathered, had serious dogmatic differences, for there are as many variations in doctrine between infidels as between Christians, but the essential benignity of both men kept them on amicable terms, and they often cooperated in good works. The only noticeable difference between them was that Fred usually tried to sneak a little propaganda into his operations--a dodge that the more scrupulous Leopold was careful to avoid. . . . [H]e sent each and every one of the clergy of the town a copy of Paine's "Age of Reason" three or four times a year--always disguised as a special delivery or registered letter marked "Urgent". . .
But in the masterpiece of Fred Ammermeyer's benevolent career there was no such attempt at direct missionarying; indeed, his main idea when he conceived it was to hold up to scorn and contumely, by the force of mere contrast, the crude missionarying of his theological opponents. This idea seized him one evening when he dropped into the Central Police Station to pass the time of day with an old friend, a police lieutenant who was then the only known freethinker on the Baltimore force. Christmas was approaching and the lieutenant was in an unhappy and rebellious frame of mind--not because he objected to its orgies as such, or because he sought to deny Christians its beautiful consolations, but simply and solely because he always had the job of keeping order at the annual free dinner by the massed missions of the town to the derelicts of the waterfront, and that duty compelled him to listen politely to a long string of pious exhortations, many of them from persons he knew to be whited sepulchres.

"Why in hell," he observed impatiently, "do all them goddam hypocrites keep the poor bums waiting for two, three hours while they get off their goddam whimwham? Here is a hall full of men who ain't had nothing to speak of to eat for maybe three, four days, and yet they have to set there smelling the turkey and the coffee while ten, fifteen Sunday-school superintendents and W.C.T.U. [Women's Christian Temperance Union] sisters sing hymns to them and holler against booze. I tell you, Mr. Ammermeyer, it ain't human. 

More than once I have saw a whole row of them poor bums pass out in faints, and had to send them away in the wagon. And then, when the chow is circulated at last, and they begin fighting for the turkey bones, they ain't hardly got the stuff down before the superintendents and the sisters begin calling on them to stand up and confess whatever skullduggery they have done in the past, whether they really done it or not, with us cops standing all around. And every man Jack of them knows that if they don't lay it on plenty thick there won't be no encore of the giblets and stuffing, and two times out of three there ain't no encore anyhow, for them psalm singers are the stingiest outfit outside hell and never give a starving bum enough solid feed to last him until Christmas Monday. And not a damned drop to drink! Nothing but coffee--and without no milk! I tell you, Mr. Ammermeyer, it makes a man's blood boil."

Fred's duly boiled, and to immediate effect. By noon the next day he had rented the largest hall on the waterfront and sent word to the newspapers that arrangements for a Christmas party for bums to end all Christmas parties for bums were under way. His plan for it was extremely simple. The first obligation of hospitality, he announced somewhat prissily, was to find out precisely what one's guests wanted, and the second was to give it to them with a free and even reckless hand. As for what his proposed guests wanted, he had no shade of doubt, for he was a man of worldly experience and he had also, of course, the advice of his friend the lieutenant, a recognized expert in the psychology of the abandoned.
First and foremost, they wanted as much malt liquor as they would buy themselves if they had the means to buy it. Second, they wanted a dinner that went on in rhythmic waves, all day and all night, until the hungriest and hollowest bum was reduced to breathing with not more than one cylinder of one lung. Third, they wanted not a mere sufficiency but a riotous superfluity of the best five-cent cigars on sale on the Baltimore wharves. Fourth, they wanted continuous entertainment, both theatrical and musical, of a sort in consonance with their natural tastes and their station in life. Fifth and last, they wanted complete freedom from evangelical harassment of whatever sort, before, during, and after the secular ceremonies.

On this last point, Fred laid special stress, and every city editor in Baltimore had to hear him expound it in person. I was one of those city editors, and I well recall his great earnestness, amounting almost to moral indignation. It was an unendurable outrage, he argued, to invite a poor man to a free meal and then make him wait for it while he was battered with criticism of his ways, however well intended. And it was an even greater outrage to call upon him to stand up in public and confess to all the false steps of what may have been a long and much troubled life. Fred was determined, he said, to give a party that would be devoid of all the blemishes of the similar parties staged by the Salvation Army, the mission helpers, and other such nefarious outfits. If it cost him his last cent, he would give the bums of Baltimore massive and unforgettable proof that philanthropy was by no means a monopoly of gospel sharks--that its highest development, in truth, was to be found among freethinkers.

It might have cost him his last cent if he had gone it alone, for he was by no means a man of wealth, but his announcement had hardly got out before he was swamped with offers of help. Leopold Bortsch pledged twenty-five barrels of Scharnhorst beer and every other Totsaufer in Baltimore rushed up to match him. The Baltimore agents of the Pennsylvania two-fer factories fought for the privilege of contributing the cigars. The poultry dealers of Lexington, Fells Point, and Cross Street markets threw in barrel after barrel of dressed turkeys, some of them in very fair condition. The members of the boss bakers' association, not a few of them freethinkers themselves, promised all the bread, none more than two days old, that all the bums of the Chesapeake littoral could eat, and the public-relations counsel of the Celery Trust, the Cranberry Trust, the Sauerkraut Trust, and a dozen other such cartels and combinations leaped at the chance to serve.

If Fred had to fork up cash for any part of the chow, it must have been for the pepper and salt alone. . . . But the rent of the hall had to be paid, and not only paid but paid in advance, for the owner thereof was a Methodist deacon, and there were many other expenses of considerable size--for example, for the entertainment, the music, the waiters and bartenders, and the mistletoe and immortelles which decorated the ball. Fred, if he had desired, might have got the free services of whole herds of amateur musicians and elocutionists, but he swept them aside disdainfully, for he was determined to give his guests a strictly professional show. . . . He got, of course, some contributions in cash from rich freethinkers, but when the smoke cleared away at last and he totted up his books, he found that the party had set him back more than a hundred and seventy-five dollars.

Admission to it was by invitation only, and the guests were selected with a critical and bilious eye by the police lieutenant. No bum who had ever been known to do any honest work--even such light work as sweeping out a saloon--was on the list. By Fred's express and oft-repeated command it was made up wholly of men completely lost to human decency, in whose favor nothing whatsoever could be said. The doors opened at 11 a.m. of Christmas Day, and the first canto of the dinner began instantly. There were none of the usual preliminaries--no opening prayer, no singing of a hymn, no remarks by Fred himself, not even a fanfare by the band. The bums simply shuffled and shoved their way to the tables and simultaneously the waiters and sommeliers poured in with the chow and the malt. For half an hour no sound was heard save the rattle of crockery, the chomp-chomp of mastication, and the grateful grunts and "Oh, boy!"s of the assembled underprivileged.

Then the cigars were passed round (not one but half a dozen to every man), the band cut loose with the tonic chord of G major, and the burlesque company plunged into Act I, Sc. 1 of "Krausmeyer's Alley." There were in those days, as old-timers will recall, no less than five standard versions of this classic, ranging in refinement all the way from one so tony that it might have been put on at the Union Theological Seminary down to one so rowdy that it was fit only for audiences of policemen, bums, newspaper reporters, and medical students. This last was called the Cincinnati version, because Cincinnati was then the only great American city whose mores tolerated it. Fred gave instructions that it was to be played à outrance and con fuoco, with no salvo of slapsticks, however brutal, omitted, and no double-entendre, however daring. Let the boys have it, he instructed the chief comedian, Larry Snodgrass, straight in the eye and direct from the wood. They were poor men and full of sorrow, and he wanted to give them, on at least one red-letter day, a horse-doctor's dose of the kind of humor they really liked.

In that remote era the girls of the company could add but little to the exhilarating grossness of the performance, for the strip tease was not yet invented and even the shimmy was still only nascent, but they did the best they could with the muscle dancing launched by Little Egypt at the Chicago World's Fair, and that best was not to be sneezed at, for they were all in hearty sympathy with Fred's agenda, and furthermore, they cherished the usual hope of stage folk that Charles Frohman or Abe Erlanger might be in the audience. Fred had demanded that they all appear in red tights, but there were not enough red tights in hand to outfit more than half of them, so Larry Snodgrass conceived the bold idea of sending on the rest with bare legs. It was a revolutionary indelicacy, and for a startled moment or two the police lieutenant wondered whether he was not bound by his Hippocratic oath to raid the show, but when be saw the whole audience leap up and break into cheers, his dubieties vanished, and five minutes later he was roaring himself when Larry and the other comedians began paddling the girls' cabooses with slapsticks.

I have seen many a magnificent performance of "Krausmeyer's Alley" in my time, including a Byzantine version called "Krausmeyer's Dispensary," staged by the students at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, but never have I seen a better one. Larry and his colleagues simply gave their all. Wherever, on ordinary occasions, there would have been a laugh, they evoked a roar, and where there would have been roars they produced something akin to asphyxia and apoplexy. Even the members of the musicians' union were forced more than once to lay down their fiddles and cornets and bust into laughter. In fact, they enjoyed the show so vastly that when the comedians retired for breath and the girls came out to sing "Sweet Rosie O'Grady" or "I've Been Workin' on the Railroad," the accompaniment was full of all the outlawglissandi and sforzandi that we now associate with jazz.

The show continued at high tempo until 2 p.m., when Fred shut it down to give his guests a chance to eat the second canto of their dinner. It was a duplicate of the first in every detail, with second and third helpings of turkey, sauerkraut, mashed potatoes, and celery for everyone who called for them, and a pitcher of beer in front of each guest. The boys ground away at it for an hour, and then lit fresh cigars and leaned back comfortably for the second part of the show. It was still basically "Krausmeyer's Alley," but it was a "Krausmeyer's Alley" adorned and bedizened with reminiscences of every other burlesque-show curtain raiser and afterpiece in the repertory. It went on and on for four solid hours, with Larry and his pals bending themselves to their utmost exertions, and the girls shaking their legs in almost frantic abandon. At the end of an hour the members of the musicians' union demanded a cut-in on the beer and got it, and immediately afterward the sommeliers began passing pitchers to the performers on the stage.

Meanwhile, the pitchers on the tables of the guests were kept replenished, cigars were passed round at short intervals, and the waiters came in with pretzels, potato chips, celery, radishes, and chipped beef to stay the stomachs of those accustomed to the free-lunch way of life.

At 7 p.m. precisely, Fred gave the signal for a hiatus in the entertainment, and the waiters rushed in with the third canto of the dinner. The supply of roast turkey, though it had been enormous, was beginning to show signs of wear by this time, but Fred had in reserve twenty hams and forty pork shoulders, the contribution of George Wienefeldter, president of the Weinefeldter Bros. & Schmidt Sanitary Packing Co., Inc. Also, he had a mine of reserve sauerkraut hidden down under the stage, and soon it was in free and copious circulation and the guests were taking heroic hacks at it. This time they finished in three-quarters of an hour, but Fred filled the time until 8 p.m. by ordering a seventh inning stretch and by having the police lieutenant go to the stage and assure all hands that any bona-fide participant found on the streets, at the conclusion of the exercises, with his transmission jammed would not be clubbed and jugged, as was the Baltimore custom at the time, but returned to the hall to sleep it off on the floor. This announcement made a favorable impression, and the brethren settled down for the resumption of the show in a very pleasant mood. Larry and his associates were pretty well fagged out by now, for the sort of acting demanded by the burlesque profession is very fatiguing, but you'd never have guessed it by watching them work.

At ten the show stopped again, and there began what Fred described as a Bierabend, that is, a beer evening. Extra pitchers were put on every table, more cigars were banded about, and the waiters spread a substantial lunch of rye bread, rat-trap cheese, ham, bologna, potato salad, liver pudding, and Blutwurst. Fred announced from the stage that the performers needed a rest and would not be called upon again until twelve o'clock, when a midnight show would begin, but that in the interval any guest or guests with a tendency to song might step up and show his or their stuff. No less than a dozen volunteers at once went forward but Fred had the happy thought of beginning with a quartet, and so all save the first four were asked to wait. The four laid their heads together, the band played the vamp of "Sweet Adeline," and they were off. It was not such singing as one hears from the Harvard Glee Club or the Bach Choir at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, but it was at least as good as the barbershop stuff that hillbillies now emit over the radio. The other guests applauded politely, and the quartet, operating briskly under malt and hop power, proceeded to "Don't You Hear Dem Bells?" and "Aunt Dinah's Quilting Party." Then the four singers had a nose-to-nose palaver and the first tenor proceeded somewhat shakily to a conference with Otto Strauss, the leader of the orchestra.

From where I sat, at the back of the hall, beside Fred, I could see Otto shake his head, but the tenor persisted in whatever he was saying, and after a moment Otto shrugged resignedly and the members of the quartet again took their stances. Fred leaned forward eagerly, curious to hear what their next selection would be. He found out at once. It was "Are You Ready for the Judgment Day?," the prime favorite of the period in all the sailors' bethels, helping-up missions, Salvation Army bum traps, and other such joints along the waterfront. Fred's horror and amazement and sense of insult were so vast that he was completely speechless, and all I heard out of him while the singing went on was a series of sepulchral groans. The man was plainly suffering cruelly, but what could I do? What, indeed, could anyone do? For the quartet had barely got half way through the first stanza of the composition before the whole audience joined in. And it joined in with even heartier enthusiasm when the boys on the stage proceeded to "Showers of Blessings," the No. 2, favorite of all seasoned mission stiffs, and then to "Throw Out the Lifeline," and then to "Where Shall We Spend Eternity?," and then to "Wash Me, and I Shall Be Whiter Than Snow."

 Half way along in this orgy of hymnody, the police lieutenant took Fred by the arm and led him out into the cold, stinging, corpse-reviving air of a Baltimore winter night. The bums, at this stage, were beating time on the tables with their beer glasses and tears were trickling down their noses. Otto and his band knew none of the hymns, so their accompaniment became sketchier and sketchier, and presently they shut down altogether. By this time the members of the quartet began to be winded, and soon there was a halt. In the ensuing silence there arose a quavering, boozy, sclerotic voice from the floor. "Friends," it began, "I just want to tell you what these good people have done for me--how their prayers have saved a sinner who seemed past all redemption. Friends, I had a good mother, and I was brought up under the influence of the Word. But in my young manhood my sainted mother was called to heaven, my poor father took to rum and opium, and I was led by the devil into the hands of wicked men--yes, and wicked women, too. Oh, what a shameful story I have to tell! It would shock you to hear it, even if I told you onl

I waited for no more, but slunk into the night. Fred and the police lieutenant had both vanished, and I didn't see Fred again for a week. But the next day I encountered the lieutenant on the street, and he hailed me sadly. "Well," be said, "what could you expect from them bums? It was the force of habit, that's what it was. They have been eating mission handouts so long they can't help it. Whenever they smell coffee, they begin to confess. Think of all that good food wasted! And all that beer! And all them cigars!"

Monday, November 5, 2018

Genealogical History of the Melungeon Families by Mark French Jr.

Genealogical History of the Melungeon Families by Mark French Jr. November 22, 1947.
By Mark French Jr. Of Clintwood, Virginia Paper Originally Written, November 22, 1947. Corrected Edition Written, February 20, 1964. 
Uncle Wash Osborne of Copper Ridge near Dungannon in Scott County gave me more information about the Melungeons than anyone else. Uncle Wash's full name is George Washington Osborne. From what I gathered from Uncle Wash, the Melungeons started coming to Wise and Scott Counties about 1820. These people came in about equal numbers from Kentucky from Newmans' Ridge and lower end of Lee County. 
A few came from North Carolina. The first Collins family, who came to Scott County from Newmans Ridge were white. From Kentucky came the following families; Collins, Gibsons, and Sextons. From Newman's Ridge; Collins, Littons and Bollings. Very few people with these names came from Newman's Ridge. From Blackwater, Tennessee came the Sweeneys, Adkins, Lucas, Bollings, Goins and Baldwins. Also the Melungeons came to Scott County from Letcher County, Kentucky near Whitesburg at a place called Lick Rock. These people lived in large numbers. Uncle Poke Gibson came to Scott from Letcher about 1820. He claimed to be Portuguese Indian. A few Littons came from Newman's Ridge who are member of the Melango Tribe. There are two groups of Littons members of the Melango Tribe who live in Scott County and the Littons of Wise County who are not members. The Littons of Wise are no relation to the Littons of Scott. The Bollings, who are numerous in Scott and Wise Counties, came from Newman's Ridge. 
The have all the features of the Indian race. Old Jack Bolling, the originator of this family, is believed to have come from a low life grade of Indian. He married a melungeon by the name of Collins or Sexton but this is the first and last crossbreed in the family. His people were strong and spoke half-broken English. He was pure bred Melango and had no other blood in him. In this case word Melango pertains to Indian blood only. The Baldwins came to Scott County from Blackwater, Tennessee. They came from an Indian tribe there and the first Baldwins here were full-blooded Indian but in this region mixed with Negro slaves and Gibson and Sextons which leaves a variously diluted blood. 
Most of this set of Baldwins live in Scott County. The present members of this name are one-third Indian, one-third Portuguese and one-third colored. Another group, the Coins, who are very near full Indian came from Blackwater, Tennessee. The Goins, a high-minded group of people, are believed to be mixed with white people. They settled among the white people of Scott County in the last one hundred and forty ears. The Sweeneys who came from Blackwater, are a fighting tribe when in anger; other wise, they are a peaceful group. They are not as dark as some of the other members from Blackwater. Nerve is one of their outstanding traits not being afraid of anything. Years ago Old man Nichols gave several of them a good beating and thence they scattered. A few settled in Russell, a few in Lee, a few in Wise, a few in the lower end of Scott, a few at Newman's Ridge and others went down to the home of their forebears Blackwater Swamp, Tennessee. The Adkins family of Indian origin came from Blackwater, Tennessee. Some of them have migrated from Scott County to Letcher and Pike County. A Kentucky family name which belongs to the Melango tribe is the "Lucas' facial features are large and massive with ruddy cheeks. It is believed they are descended from Portuguese Indians and Irish. The name Lucas is of Irish origin. 
Another family which originated from the melungeons is the Moores. The Moores came in to this county from Newman's Ridge about 1807. The originator of the Moores here was old Eth Moore. The family name of this forebears had the Irish prefix O and was spelled O'Moore. Eth Moore always said he was one-third Portuguese Indian. Of course the other two-thirds consisted of Irish and don't know what. The Moores of Wise County are descendants of Eth Moore. Eth Moore had tolerable dark skin, broad cheek bones, broad face, very pretty eyes black as a cat, a nose three inches long, very flat and wide as a opossums. He spoke with an indistinct tone since his words came through his nose. Eth Moore, a school teacher, a man of knowledge and brilliant mind, lived during the slave days but kept no slaves as he considered them too irresponsible to have onthe place. The name Eth was a shortening of the name Ethan. 
The Moore set of Scott County, who are descendants of old Eth Moore, are people oF good business sense. Usually the men and women are very good looking. Another name of the Melango tribe of this region is the Frenches. The Melungeons migrated to the Southern sections of this country such as Newman's Ridge and Wise and Scott Counties from the North. They migrated to Scott County in about equal numbers from Newman's Ridge and Letcher County, Kentucky. To Newman's Ridge the Indian tribe came from Blackwater Swamp, Tennessee and the Portuguese Indian element came from someplace in the North. They migrated down here from the North in all probability because it was very cold up there and were in need of blankets and warm houses and had not money to buy the blankets nor the industry to build warm houses. Therefore they migrated further south where no blankets and warm houses were needed. Of course, blankets and warm houses were needed during winter season of the year but winter season was of short duration.
 I have separated the Melango families into the different groups as follows: 1. Purebred Indian groups from Blackwater, Tennessee a. Coins b. Bollings c. Sweeneys d. Adkins e. Minor 2. Indian group from Blackwater who married in other Melango Tribes a. Baldwins 3. Melango groups from Kentucky a. Collins b. Sextons 4. Indians and whites from Newman's Ridge a. Bollings b. Collins 5. Portuguese Indian and white from Newman's Ridge a. Collins From Newman's Ridge a. Moore's—married Sextons and Gibson during first generation 6. Portuguese Indian from Kentucky a. Gibson Under the column Portuguese Indian and white are the few people who came from Newman's Ridge called Collins. In Scott County they married among the Sextons and Gibsons. By intermarrying among these other people their blood became variously diluted. We know definitely that the blood of the descendants of Collins of Newman's Ridge consists of Portuguese Indians and white. 
The first Collins from Newman's Ridge were reported to be white. Now the descendants of old Eth Moore in the generations since 1835 who married in families other than Melango have very little Melango blood in their veins. Of course, blood of the descendants of those who married the Melangoes in the last one hundred and twenty years in Scott County is variously diluted. Under the column Purebred Indian group from Blackwater are the Minors. The Minors, a fighting people, show more of the Indian than any other Indian group in Scott County. They claim to be Portuguese Indian stock. They are of large stature, tall of black complexion and very strong. 
I believe the Minors are of three-quarters Indian and on-quarter Portuguese. The are of the type of people whose word is their bond. In Scott County some of them own large stock farms and have prospered. The story of the Spanish ship wreck was verified by Samuel Sexton. It was repeated to him by Aunt Caroline Collins who heard it from her father, Johnny Sexton, who came to America on a ship which carried Spanish bullion. Johnny Sexton came to Stone Mountain from Eastern Virginia. His family was of Spanish descent. I do not have the Spanish shipwreck story readily was available to insert in this paper. I read an interesting article in the October 18 issue of the SATURDAY EVENING POST called "The Legend" written by Elizabeth Worden of Washington D.C. It gives different theories advanced by different people about the origin of the Melungeons of Blackwater Swamp and Newman's Ridge, Tennessee. I do not have a copy but gave it to Hamp Osborne who writes an article called "Hillbilly" in a Scott County newspaper.
 I meant to go down to Slant and talk to John Sallings about the Indians from Blackwater but failed to do so. Of course, I doubt if he could tell me anything about the mixed group of Melungeons. John Sallings is now deceased, dying two or three years ago. 

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

CAUTION: Dangerous Invasive Plants in your neighborhood

CBS LOCAL) — A noxious, alien and invasive plant that looks like Queen Anne’s lace on steroids – giant hogweed — is causing some concerns after being found in multiple states, including Michigan.
 In addition to Pennsylvania, giant hogweed can be found in New York, Ohio, Maryland, Oregon, Washington, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine, according to the Department of Environmental Conservation.
Hogweed is in the carrot family and can grow 14 feet or taller. The toxic plant has thick leaves stretching five feet wide and large clusters of white flowers on the top in an umbrella pattern. Its stems are green with purple blotches and white hairs.
Giant hogweed originates from the Caucasus Mountains between the Black and Caspian seas by Russia – but it made its way to the U.S. by the early 20th century.


                                                  wild parsnip 

Beware of the wild parsnipDon't be tempted to pick these pretty yellow flowers. Contact with the plant, which is found throughout North America, can cause a painful light-sensitve rash similar to that of the Wild Hogweed. 

Wild parsnip is most irritating while flowering.

Thursday, December 28, 2017


See the guy standing on the car in the water?

There is no fix for stupidityYour day Should look pretty good after seeing this!    
Up comes the car

Coming up...coming...coming

Coming...almost there! oh no>!!!!

OOPS !!!I could have sworn I hit the brake pedal!

Coming back up...coming...coming

Coming...almost there!

Time to get a Bigger Wrecker!

Ok, we got the car...
let's get the other wrecker out now!

                                OMG !!

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Asheville, Ashe co and Haywood

  1. Hey  guess I better get this out..

  2. Our earliest known proven Collins ancestor was Thomas Collins born abt 1770 in Wilkes/ Ashe NC..It was all Wilkes co until 1795..He married a Nancy Williams there who was born abt 1785. They had 10 children and all but one or two were married when they moved to Perry/Letcher co Ky abt 1835. Many families left Va and the Carolina's in the early 1800's due to more expensive land, higher taxes, intrusion by new settlers and the pressure on Indians to vacate their land for white settlers. Several families of Collins were back and forth across the Va/NC state line (which was moved more than once) with children born in both states..Ok  so here is a map showing Samuel Collins almost dead center. that should be somewhere arond Jefferson now I think..Far to the right in Allegheny co is a Charles then George Collins cabin. Samuel is who we're interested in..
    From 1807 to 1913, the county went through numerous boundary changes. In 1849, to form Watauga County, the southwestern part of Ashe County was combined with parts of Caldwell CountyWilkes County, and Yancey County.[citation needed] Ten years later in 1859, the eastern part of the remainder of Ashe County became Alleghany County.[3]
  3. here is a Wilkes/Ashe map

Samuel would be on the south fork of the New river (I don't know why I got center spacing and I can't seem to fix it  lol)  

this Thomas below is "old" Thomas Collins b 1710 ,and is possible he is father  of Samuel b. 1734 who I think (but no one can prove) is the father of our Thomas b.1770.Regardless of parentage you can see pretty close where they lived.

Jan. 9, 1779, John Livingston enters 140 acres, headwaters Beaver Creek, joining Thomas Collins land and Thomas Collens line including his improvements., Wilkes Co.

Jan. 2, 1779, Benjamin Cleveland enters 200 acres southside south fork of New River where Reuben Stringer and Samuel Collens now lives.

Jan. 2, 1779, Benjamin Harden enters 600 acres on Dogg Creek of New River near Rattlesnake Den on Dugout, including two old cabbins formerly belonging to George Collins.

settler map

present day Ashe co


But you're not going to Ashe NC I don't're going to Asheville.!!..or more specifically Waynesville. that brings us to another one of your grandfathers,William Caldwell who was married in Haywood co NC in 1810 ..exactly where you're going.

 William Caldwell married Nancy Agnes Black (Nancy Agnes Blackfox Chippewa)

County Court Records at Waynesville, NC & Family H

North Carolina, Marriage Collection, 1741-2004 about William Caldwell

William Caldwell
Nancy Black
Marriage Date:
22 Sep 1810
Marriage County:
Marriage State:
North Carolina

Name:William Caldwell
Spouse:Nancy Black
Spouse Gender:Female
Bond Date:22 Sep 1810
Bond #:000065040
Level Info:North Carolina Marriage Bonds, 1741-1868
Record #:01 014
Bondsman:John Battle

Agnes was youngest dau of Bob Benge the Chicamauga Cherokee war chief by his 3rd wife Nancy Blackfox Chippewa (formatting really gone to hell.) Benge's 1st family was burned to death in an attack by John Seiver and his men..they could not marry in Va due to the anti-miscegenation laws and Ky had large penalties if you married outside your "race".Haywood is right across the mountains from Harlan co Ky where they lived the rest of their lives. Later on some Caldwell's moved to Magoffin co then on to Ashland
Haywood is also part of the Qualla boundry read abt that here

This I believe is the father of Nancy Benge/Black Caldwell

This petition concerns a spoliation claim made against the United States by Black Fox, dated September 15, 1838. Black Fox is seeking compensation for improvements that he made to his property before U.S. authorities removed him. The case was referred through Chief John Ross to Major General Scott for settlement.

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Breaks of Sandy Melungeon Tales 2017

                            In search of the Lost Tribe in Ohio...

                           They lived near the Great Serpent Mound

                            In search of the Lost Tribe in Ohio


2) Capt'n Tobias Thorne -the only ever mythical melungeon sea captain

The word "Melungeon" itself is a derogatory, inflammatory term. It has been used through the years to create anger, dissension, and discrimination, indicating a lower type of human being. In fact Melungeons are American Indians who graciously have accepted others into their families.

                             O them melungeons, they'll get you too

The Hellboy cartoon below illustrates how Melungeons have been portrayed in popular culture.The defamation lives on.

This is a US Government Document, clearly states the 'Melungeans" were a branch of the Croatan/Lumbee Indians.

Indians of North Carolina. Letter from the Secretary of the Interior transmitting, in response to a Senate resolution of June 30, 1914, a report on the condition and tribal rights of the Indians of Robeson and adjoining counties of North Carolina. January 5, 1915. -- Referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs and ordered to be printed. January 13, 1915. -- Accompanying illustrations ordered printed.

             Melungeans were a branch of the Croatan-Lumbee Indians--govt doc


San Miguel de Gualdape Slave Rebellion of 1526

San Miguel de Gualdape was the first European settlement in
what is now the continental United States, founded by Spaniard
Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. It was to last only
three months of winter before being abandoned in early 1527.


Records show that in 1521, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón
a wealthy sugar planter of Santo Domingo, had sent
Francisco Gordillo northward to explore the continent. 
Upon reaching the Bahamas, he ran into his cousin,
slave trader Pedro de Quexos (Pedro de Quejo), and the two of
them set out together. They landed at the “River of St. John the
Baptist”, possibly the Pee Dee River, where they kidnapped 70
natives to sell in Hispaniola, including one, given the name
Francisco de Chicora, who provided some ethnological
information about his province, Chicora, and the neighboring
provinces. Chicora was evidently one of several Carolina Siouan
territories subject to their king, Datha of Duahe (Duarhe).
The Siouan captives were described as white, dressed in skins,
and larger than the average Spaniard.

The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake:
By Samuel Bawlf

"So, on October 7, 1568, Hawkins ordered ashore those of his
men "such as were willing to land" and sailed for England with
those who "were moft desirous to goe homewardes." Aiming to
reach the French Huguenot colony in Florida, about thirty of
those left behind banded together and set off on the 1,500-mile
walk around the Gulf of Mexico. Five months later they
reached Florida but were unable to find the French colonists
because they had been massacred by the Spaniards three years
The sailors turned north, following Indian trails from one tribal
territory to another, invariably being greeted hospitably.
As more of them elected to remain with their native hosts,
the party steadily diminished. Those who chose not to stay in
New Spain dispersed themselves in many directions.
Many were never heard from again.

Those who chose to follow the lead of David Ingram, Richard
Brown and Richard Twide, marched northward hoping to
find passage home on English or French fishing vessels that
frequented the coast of New England and New Brunswick.
For the next 11 months of 1568-69, Ingram, Brown and Twide
stayed together and walked more than 3,000 miles up the
east coast of America, passing through Maine, to their eventual
destination in St. John, New Brunswick. Once in St. John,
Ingram persuaded a French fishing boat captain, Captain
Champlaine, to give him passage to France aboard the ship
Gargarine. Sailing from St. John, the Gargarine made France
in only twenty days, and Ingram found himself back in England
near the end of September in 1569."


Douglas Summers Brown
The Catawba Indians:
The People of the River

No one knows what became of the men and the fortifications
along Pardo's thousand-mile trail. Henry Savage says ,
"Some men were killed, some drifted back down the trail
when the captain failed to return."

Others, including a fifer with his wife and children, stayed
and threw in their lot with their Indian hosts. Boyana himself
returned to Santa Elena only to be tomahawked by an
Edisto Indian.

In the Holston Valley of southwestern Virginia and of eastern
Tennessee, just across the mountains from the region of Old Fort and
Marion, North Carolina, is an ethnic group whose origins have
aroused much speculation but who stoutly insist that they are
Portuguese. They are called "Melungeons," (also
Melungeans, Malungeons,") a term whose meaning is

Local historians believe they are the descendants of mixed
marriages between Indian women and the Spaniards who
had a post near Old Fort, North Carolina. (19) .

(19) - Information came from my father, historian *Lewis
Preston Summers (See below). This group has been
described, though somewhat inaccurately, by W.L. Worden,
"Sons of the Legend," The Saturday Evening Post,
Oct. 18, 1947; also, in "The Melungeons, the Mystery People
of Tennessee,"
The Tennessee Conservationist, August, 1959.

These articles were called to my attention by W. P. Grohse of
Sneedville, Tenn., a student of the Melungeons' origin. A
connection between these people and the "Turks" near
Sumter, S.C. who may or may not have Catawba blood, has
been suggested. The Melungeons are said by some to have
stopped over in South Carolina enroute to Tennessee.

*Lewis Preston Summers b.1868 d.1943 m. in 1897 Annie

Katherine Barbee. Lewis was the author of "Summers
History of Southwest Virginia." Lewis was the Abingdon Post
Master from 1890-1894. He began his legal practice in 1895.
He was appointed U.S. district attorney by President
Harding in 1922. He was a member of the Virginia State Bar
Association and the Presbyterian Church. Summers was
also chairman of the Walnut Grove Cemetery Association,
Washington Co., VA. The land for this cemetery was
originally owned by Robert Preston, Sr., whose wife
Margaret Rhea Preston, and mother, Eleanor Fairman
Preston, established the cemetery. Lewis and Annie had
7 children.

Will Allen Dromgoole wrote in 1890:

"Old Jim Mullins, the father of the branch, was an
Englishman, a trader, it is supposed, with Indians. He was
of a roving, daring disposition, and rather fond of the free
abandon which characterized the Indian. He was much
given to sports, and was always "cheek to fowl" with the
Cherokees and other Indian tribes he like to mingle. What
brought him to Newman's Ridge must have been, as it is
said, his love for freedom and sport, and that careless
existence known only to the Indians.

He stumbled upon the Ridge settlement, fell in with the
Ridgemanites, and never left them. He took for a wife
one of their women, a descendant of old Sol Collins, and
reared a family known as the MULLINS tribe. This is
said to be the first white blood that mingled with the blood of
the dusky Ridgemanites."


"Callaway Collins is an Indian~~"

 reprinted from the Knoxville Register September 6, 1848 quoting from the Louisville Examiner~~ The legend of their history, which they carefully preserve, is this. A great many years ago, these mountains were settled by a society of Portuguese Adventurers, men and women--who came from the long-shore parts of Virginia, that they might be freed from the restraints and drawbacks imposed on them by any form of government. These people made themselves friendly with the Indians and freed, as they were from every kind of social government, they uprooted all conventional forms of society and lived in a delightful Utopia of their own creation, trampling on the marriage relation, despising all forms of religion, and subsisting upon corn (the only possible product of the soil) and wild game of the woods.

These intermixed with the Indians, and subsequently their descendants~~~

 They are privileged voters in the state in which they live and thus, you will perceive, are accredited citizens of the commonwealth. They are brave, but quarrelsome; and are hospitable and generous to strangers. They have no preachers among them and are almost without any knowledge of a Supreme Being. They are married by the established forms, but husband and wife separate at pleasure, without meeting any reproach or disgrace from their friends. They are remarkably unchaste, and want of chastity on the part of females is no bar to their marrying. They have but little association with their neighbors, carefully preserving their race, or class, or whatever you may call it: and are in every respect, save they are under the state government, a separate and distinct people. Now this is no traveller's story.

They are really what I tell you, without abating or setting down in aught in malice. They are behind their neighbors in the arts. They use oxen instead of horses in their agricultural attempts, and their implements of husbandry are chiefly made by themselves of wood. They are, without exception, poor and ignorant, but apparently happy. Having thus given you a correct geographical and scientific history of the people, I will proceed with my own adventures.


Court deposition - 3/9/1887, Rockhouse, Letcher Co Ky

“He also stated there was a large family of Collins on Colly, generally illiterate and weak minded and contrary to the theory of {Cotton}Mathers? they hold undisputed sway in the Valley of Colley. They are below their surrounding neighbors in social standing and hence, there is but little commingling in a social way.”

The Malungeons According to Joanne

The Malungeons were in fact Portuguese Adventurers
who intermixed with the local Indians in the Carolinas.
These families were reported along the Pee Dee River
as early as 1725, they may have joined Christian Priber's
'Paradice', his Utiopa in the Cherokee Indian Town. They
were likely ejected after his arrest in 1743 when Chief
Attacullaculla signed an agreement in Charleston to
trade only with the British, return runaway slaves and
expel Non-English whites from their territory. In return
they received guns, ammunition, and red paint.

From court records found in North Carolina, Arkansas,Tennessee,
Indiana, Missouri, Illinois:
These families from the Pee Dee declared they were
Portuguese and in most cases they succeeded. The Ivey,
Halls, Chavis, Shoemake, Bolton, Perkins, Goins, Collins,
Nickens, Dungee, and others have all been identified as
Portuguese in courts, county histories, etc.

In 1848 a journalist from Louisville, Kentucky visited
Newman's Ridge where he stayed at the Vardy Inn
and wrote the 'legend of their history' -- and it would
appear that Vardy Collins and/or his wife 'Spanish Peggy
Gibson' were possibly the source. Most researchers
assume Vardy was giving the history of his Collins family
but it is likely his ancestors were merely Indians as were
many of the other early settlers on Newman's Ridge. The
little Portuguese community on the border of the Carolinas
appears to have started breaking up around 1800 and many
had moved west after the War of 1812.

The Lowery of the Lumbee families according to history have
Portuguese ancestors and Tobias Gibson, son of Jordan is
also said to have had Portuguese ancestry. It seems
fairly clear to me that the Portuguese settlers who
intermixed with one tribe, most likely the Cheraw or
Saura, became the 'Lumbee' while just across the line
those same families who intermixed with the other tribes, possibly
the Catawba, Pee Dee, etc., became known as Redbones. As
they moved intoTennessee and intermixed with the
Saponi-Occaneechi families of Gibsons, Collins, etc., they became what was
described in 1848 as the 'present race of Melungens.'

No Author
Volume 05, Pages 161-163
[From MSS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.]
Abstracts of returns from the several counties in
response to circular from Governor Dobbs. [See ante,
page 144.—Editor.]
~~~ Drowning Creek on the head of Little Pedee, 50
families a mixt Crew, a lawless People, possess the
Lands without patent or paying quit rents; shot a
Surveyor for coming to view vacant lands being inclosed in
great swamps, Quakers to attend musters or pay as in
the Northern Counties; fines not high enough to oblige
the Militia to attend musters

When this mixed race was first observed by the early
settlers of the upper Cape Fear [2] about 1735, it is said
that they spoke English, cultivated land, lived in
substantial houses, and otherwise practised the arts of
civilized life, being in these respects different from any
Indians tribe. [3]

A 1725 map by John Herbert shows the Cheraw/Sarah
tribe on the Pedee River not far from Drowning Creek
where these settlers were recorded ten years later. Also
in the South Carolina Gazette October 3, 1771 it was
reported that one Winsler Drigger had been captured
near Drowning Creek in the Charraw settlement.’‘
The above records show that there were people living in
this area as early as 1725 and as late as 1771 identified
as Cheraw/Saura Indians yet in 1754 they were called a
mixed crew’ and not marked down as Indians?
Did the Portuguese arrive in the twenty years between
1725 and 1754, mixing with this tribe and living as white
people and speaking English?


Robert K Thomas

Around 1750, several tribes further east --- the Nansemond,
Yeopin, and Poroskite --- lost their lands and began to
fragment into individual family groups. These Indian families
began to migrate to the frontier and settle near the Saponi.
In 1760, Eaton died and the frontier had
The Saponi lost their land base then and also began to
fragment into individual families, and move west. In 1760’s,
I can pick up the Collins in Orange County, on the frontier,
west of Hendersonville, N.C.

                  1755 Edition of the Fry-Jefferson map shows the location of  Occaneechi

By 1790, many of these Indian families, including the Collinses, had “bunched up”
 in the counties of extreme northeastern North Carolina. Then in the 1790’s, they spread all over Northeastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, and over into 
what is now Letcher and Knott Counties, Kentucky. Many of them , like the 
Bollings of Wise Wise County, became prominent families in their areas.

Then, in the 1830s, Virginia became one of the more
consciously racist and deliberately elitist states in the Union.
First, most poor whites were disenfranchised by a property
value requirement; most Virginians west of the Blue Ridge,
as well as the poor further east, could not legally vote in
Virginia. Further, a new legal category included citizen
Indians, free blacks, and all non-whites. These “free colored”
could not vote, bear arms, travel freely, etc. In southwest
Virginia and neighboring parts of Tennessee, the more
established Indian families “weathered the storm”.

The Bollings in Wise County redefined their status as being
descendants of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, thus escaping
the free colored category. Other families who were less
wealthy, darker, and concentrated in one area, got caught
in the free colored category; and, thus the Melungeons of
southern Wise County came into existence.

By 1840, the situation became intolerable for some Indians
in Southwest Virginia, and they began to head for Kentucky,
a less repressive social and legal atmosphere. In the 1840s,
three Collins families moved into into Perry (became)
Letcher County, Kentucky.

In the 1850s, two Collins families moved to Johnson County,
just south of Paintsville (Grandpap William Collins and
brother). {Frankie’s Blackburn note here: This is where my
2nd great grandparents Griffin and Rachael Collins went
also, and were listed as Mulatto on Johnson County census
These Collinses were very Indian looking and dark.
They must have been almost full-blood Indians.

Not all the Collinses headed west in 1760 after Colonel
Eaton died. Some few went south to what is now Robeson
County, North Carolina, and became part of the modern
Lumbee Indians in that region. The history of the Collins
family is both remarkable and fascinating. They are almost
an “ethnic group” all by themselves. There are Seneca
Cayuga Collinses in New York [Again we need to find these
Collins families], White and Melungeon Collinses in east
Tennessee and Southeast Virginia, part-Indian Collinses all
down the Big Sandy and into Southern Ohio, Lumbee Indian
Collinses in North Carolina --- all, at least distantly, related, and 
all descended from two or three households of Saponi Indians in 1740.


The Martha Simmerman story: Her family was Portuguese
and English and Native American. The Supreme Court ruled
in HER FAVOR; so did the state court. The Bolton' DNA
haplogroups are not African, they are the same haplogroups
found in Spain and Portugal. The courts stated she never

Excerpt From:
Pioneer Families

Bolton Was A Melungeon Who Farmed Moccasin Bend Land 
Byline: John Wilson

Solomon Bolton was a Melungeon, a people who were a mixture of Indian, black and white ancestry, and was a soldier in the War of 1812. His lovely daughter, Jemima, had a tragic story. Another Bolton pioneer in Hamilton County was Robert Bolton, whose father was among the state's earliest settlers.  Solomon Bolton was born in North Carolina just before 1800 and was living in South Carolina when he enlisted for the War of 1812. His wife, Rachel, was from South Carolina.  They moved to Tennessee at Blount County, then at Marion County prior to moving to Hamilton County in the 1840s. Solomon Bolton was a tenant on the large farm of the Simmermans at Moccasin Bend. 

 The Bolton children included Elizabeth, Sarah, Hiram, Solomon Jr., Eliza and Martha, in addition to Jemima. The latter daughter "was famed for her beauty, her grace of manner and modesty. She was a dark brunette. She had a suit of black hair, which was coveted by all the girls who knew her. Her form was petite, and yet, withal was so plump and so well developed as to make her an irresistibly charming young woman. 

She was most beautiful of face, and had a rich black eye, in whose depths the sunbeams seemed to gather. When she loosed her locks, they fell almost reaching the ground, and shone in the sunlight, or quivered like the glamour which the full moon throws on the placid water. She was the essence of grace and loveliness."  One of the young Simmermans, Jerome C., fell in love with Jemima. His Bivans step-mother and step-sisters opposed the marriage, fearing to lose a share of the large Simmerman estate.  With the aid of Ab Carroll and John Cummings, Jerome and Jemima made their way across the river and eloped to Trenton, Ga. That marriage occurred June 14, 1856. 

 The couple had a son, who died as an infant. Then a daughter, Martha, was born in the latter part of 1858. Eight days later, Jemima Bolton Simmerman died. That event "was such an overpowering shock to the father that he went violently insane, and had to be taken into custody and kept under guard for a long time." 

 The Bivans family later filed suit seeking the inheritance. Meanwhile, Elizabeth Bolton secreted young Martha Simmerman away for her safekeeping. The suit claimed the marriage was void because a Tennessee law prohibited the marriage of a white person with a person of Negro blood to the sixth degree.  

The Jerome Simmerman side finally won the suit after it was proven the Boltons were Melungeons. It was pointed out that Solomon Bolton could not have served in the War of 1812 had he been a Negro or mulatto. He proved his service because he was still able to recall the roll of his company from the captain down to the last private on the list.  The exact date of the marriage was also proven during the trial. Joel Cross said he could remember it because also that day a Baptist preacher leading a revival in Dade County got drunk, some horses broke loose and tore up several acres of his corn, and he had a baby girl born.  When Elizabeth Bolton died at the age of 78 in 1908, she was living in North Chattanooga with her niece, Martha, who had married James M. Carter.

Love without borders:
The Martha Simmerman story


Avoiding Pitfalls in Melungeon Research
by Pat Spurlock Part 2

As you research, you may have to settle for the fact that
perhaps your family really isn't Melungeon. I like to tell
folks that if anyone ever wanted to be a Melungeon I do,
but I have never found a direct ancestor who qualifies.
My maiden name is Spurlock. My father's paternal
ancestry is traditionally French and Indian, and
specifically Algonquin and Cherokee. I can trace the
Spurlock family back to New Kent County, Virginia--
which was the wrong side of the tracks in the 1600s.
In addition, their land there adjoined the Saponi Indians.
My greatest pleasure is in knowing my maiden name made 
W.A.Plecker's "Mongrel" list. Unfortunately, all this doesn't 
make me a Melungeon although I wish it did. I just can't prove my
connection and to my knowledge, my family was never
considered Melungeon. The key is that something made
certain families uniquely Melungeon while others were
not. It's our job to discover those differences.


Collins from Reed Island
Joanne Pezzullo
Herald and Tribune (Jonesborough, Tennessee)
27 Jan 1876, Thu Page 2

Sneedville is situated not far from Clinch River, in a beautiful valley at the foot of Newmans Ridge. It contains a population of about one hundred and fifty souls, one log church, one Academy, a Court House and Jail. The original name of the place was "Greasy Rock," so called because on a certain hedge of flat rocks near the town, the Indians are said to have skinned their bears. Hancock county was organized from a part of Hawkins County in 1848. It contains some very good farming lands, though most of the county is very rough and mountainous. It is by nature well adapted to the growing of the grasses, and could be made one of the best counties for raising sheep and cattle in the State. But the people grow mostly corn, oats and wheat and boat their surplus down the Clinch River to Chattanooga in flat-boats. The county has a varied population-- a great many of the people are industrious, enterprising and intelligent, while some are groveling, vicious and indigent. A race of people mostly by the name of Collins and Mullins live on the top, and along the spurs of Newmans Ridge, and some of them in a fertile valley called "Blackwater," "history tells not of their origin," but as far as I can learn from the oldest ones among them, their ancestors came there from "Reed Island"about the beginning of the present century. They claim to be of Welsh extraction some of them are quite dark in complexion others of a deep copper color. They all have straight hair, generally dark eyes, sharp noses, thin lips, and some of them very peculiar physiognomies. They have none of the peculiar marks of the African about them, and I have no idea that they have any African blood in them. The lands cleared out and cultivated by them on Newman's Ridge are said to be rich and productive. These people were all loyal to the Unites States Government in the late war and many of them served in the Union army and made good soldiers. ..................


Rogersville, Tenn. January 1876
Fincastle County 1773 Delinquent Tax Lists:
David Collens, Elisha Collens, Ambrus Collens, Samuel Collens, John Collens, Lewis Collens, John Collens Junr., George Collens, Charles Collens. On James McGavock's List of Delinquents. At a Court held for Fincastle Decr 6 1774 "This List of delinquents on New River & Reed Creek was received by the Court containing 213 Tithables and is that ought to be Received by the Vestry of the Parish of Botetourt. W. Ingles"

October 27, 1993 the federal government recognizes the Collins, Austins, and Gibsons who moved to the Catawba reservation as Native Americans: The following is the final base membership roll of the Catawba Indian Nation of South Carolina and is final for purposes of the distribution of funds from the Per Capita Trust Fund established under Section 11(h) of the Act of October 27, 1993 (Pub. L. 103116; 107 Stat. 1124).


The Blackwater Valley lies between Mulberry and Newman’s Ridges, and is from half a mile to mile wide. Twenty years ago it was still a wilderness, but is now under good cultivation, and divided into small farms upon which are rather poor dwellings and outbuildings. In this valley and along Newman’s Ridge, reaching into Lee County, Virginia, are settled the people called Melungeons. Some have gone into Kentucky, chiefly into Pike County, others are scattered in adjacent territory.The first settlers here were the great grand parents, Varday Collins, Shephard Gibson, and Charley Williams, who came from Virginia it is said, though other say from North Carolina. They have marked Indians resemblances in color, feature, hair, carriage, and disposition. 
A Visit To The Melungeons 1897


James H. Nickens Reconsidered:
The Indian Ancestry of Melungeons

The ethnic identity and origins of the Melungeon people have perplexed investigators of every stripe for more than a century. Imaginative theories have suggested Phoenician, Carthaginian, Portuguese, Turkish, and early Welsh origins. Others believed the Melungeons were a lost tribe of Israel or survivors of the Roanoke Colony. Speculation grew that Melungeons were descended from Spanish explorers, shipwrecked Portuguese sailors, or Turkish Pirates.

Court cases established Melungeon as a distinct yet problematic racial identity - that of a relatively darker people classified as white, then Free People of Color but later reclassified as white or “Portuguese”. By the end of the 19th century the entire population of the Bell’s Bend people had “White” stricken in the census and “Portuguese” inserted. Melungeons thus became the stuff of legend.


Many and varied physical descriptions have been recorded of the Melungeons. Among those recorded descriptions are “Indian “, “not as dark as the Indian “, “a race of light skinned Indians”, and an “Indian-like people”.

Nevertheless, the recurrent theme in Malungeon Town lore has been that of Indian ancestry. It is this aspect of the Melungeons which commands the attention of the Virginia Indian Heritage Association.

The uninformed assumption was made that these populations were some ill-defined mixture of the three perceived races, presumably Indian, white and Negro.The conclusions of the Tri-Racial Isolate theorists are marred in four critical areas:

1. Lack of sufficient knowledge of Indian

2. Lack of familiarity with Indian genealogy

3. Failure to identify Indian people outside of a
historical tribal context

4. A paradigm driven by a pathological
fascination with perceived racial constructs
rather than ethnicity.

In short – Insufficient Research layered upon a misguided and erroneous foundation.


Walter Ashby Plecker:
the first registrar of Virginia’s Bureau of Vital Statistics, starting in 1912, forced Indians to classify themselves as black. The tribes, he said, had become a “mongrel” mixture.

"I thought Plecker was a devil," she says. "Still do."

Walter Ashby Plecker was the first registrar of Virginia's Bureau of Vital Statistics, which records births, marriages and deaths. He accepted the job in 1912. For the next 34 years, he led the effort to purify the white race in Virginia by forcing Indians and other nonwhites to classify themselves as blacks. It amounted to bureaucratic genocide.
He worked with a vengeance.

Plecker was a white supremacist and a zealous advocate of eugenics - a now discredited movement to preserve the integrity of white blood by preventing interracial breeding. "Unless this can be done," he once wrote, "we have little to hope for, but may expect in the future decline or complete destruction of our civilization."
Plecker's icy efficiency as racial gatekeeper drew international attention, including that of Nazi Germany. In 1943, he boasted: "Hitler's genealogical study of the Jews is not more complete."

Plecker retired in 1946 at the age of 85 and died the following year. The damage lives on.~~ Plecker was a devout Presbyterian. He helped establish churches around the state and supported fundamentalist missionaries. Plecker belonged to a conservative Southern branch of the church that believed the Bible was infallible and condone d segregation. Members of Plecker's branch maintained that God flooded the earth and destroyed Sodom to express his anger at racial interbreeding.
"Let us turn a deaf ear to those who would interpret Christian brotherhood as racial equality," Plecker wrote in a 1925 essay.~~

The term "eugenics" was coined in 1883 by English scientist Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, a year after Darwin's death. Galton defined it as the science of "race improvement." It was viewed as a practical application of Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection.

The early aim of Galton and his followers was to promote selective marriages to eliminate hereditary disorders. It wasn't long, however, before they focused on perpetuating a superior class of humans.

As the science swept across the Atlantic, it picked up more ominous tones. Eugenicists began espousing mandatory sterilization of "wicked" and mentally retarded people to eliminate their bloodlines.
All the major colleges, including the University of Virginia, taught the science. It was embraced by such great minds as Alexander Graham Bell, George Bernard Shaw and H.G. Wells. Margaret Sanger won support for legalizing contraception by arguing it would lower the birth rate of undesirables. Winston Churchill unsuccessfully proposed sterilization laws for Great Britain in 1910. As governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson signed that state's first sterilization law in 1911. The next year, he was elected president.

Virginia's gentry embraced the fad. Eugenics was the perfect way to deal with race and the underclass.

The Racial Integrity Act essentially narrowed race classifications on birth and marriage certificates to two choices: "white person" or "colored." The law defined a white as one with no trace of black blood. A white person could have no more than a
1/16th trace of Indian blood - an exception, much to Plecker's regret, legislators made to appease the descendants of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, who were considered among Virginia's first families.
The act forbade interracial marriage and lying about race on registration forms. Violators faced felony convictions and a year in prison.

Plecker strongly supported sterilization laws, arguing that feeble-minded whites were prone to mate with Indians and blacks


"While DNA can prove direct ancestry or lineage,

it can’t prove race or ethnicity.

The reason for this is that human beings are so much

alike, and have had genetic mixtures for so long even

the most defining racial or ethnic traits are found in

almost every human family. Skin color, facial structure,

hair and eye color, all things that are used to define race

or ethnicity lose definition when traced as part of a

DNA analysis. There is no gene that can accurately

define an American Indian for instance, many of the

so-called defining characteristics are genetically

identical to many Asians and African Americans."

---Written by Charles Grimmett - © 2002 Pagewise


Deborah A. Bolnick PhD is a Geneticist of the University of Texas at Austin

The Legitimacy of Genetic Ancestry Tests”

Bolnick et al. also allege that genomic ancestry panels
present a biased picture of nonneutral mutations, which is
not the case (2, 3). They then imply that genomic ancestry
methods rely on imperfect—i.e., insufficiently large—
databases and thus produce misleading results. However,
the onus on the database developer is not to build a perfect
database, but rather to quantify how imperfect the
database is.

Generalizing about individuals on group membership in this
way is the intellectual equivalent of bigotry. Bolnick et al.
believe that anyone who says they belong to a group should
belong to that group—regardless of whether or not their
deep ancestors (as reported by DNA tests) were part of the
parental population associated with that group. The irony is
that we do not disagree. In some cases, genetic testing is
simply not relevant—not because it is flawed, but because it
reports only one aspect of “race” or “ethnicity.” Genomic
ancestry tests demonstrate that admixture is the rule rather
than the exception and hence support that idea that human-
derived notions of “race” are based on the subjective and
ever-changing concepts of social and political identity.”



Cherokee Grandsons of Valentine Collins 

Indian roll Application
Benjamin---Fieldon Collins brother cert of Benjamin Collins
Eastern Cherokee App.
Sons of John Collins- Louisa Cole,


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