Friday, November 30, 2012

Subirrigation for Greenhouse Crops



Subirrigation is becoming an increasingly common way of watering and fertilizing greenhouse crops in Massachusetts. This article is for growers considering a subirrigation system or just starting out with a new system.
Advantages to subirrigation
There are three major economic advantages to subirrigation. The most commonly cited advantage is the savings in labor needed for watering the plants: a single person can water thousands of plants by operating the flooding system manually or with the help of a computer. Additionally, there is a potential savings in water and fertilizer with subirrigation since both are recirculated and not lost by leaching or runoff. Also, depending on the system and how it is installed, a grower can expect an increase greenhouse space efficiency (percentage of total floor area in use for growing plants).
Many growers report more uniform plant growth and less foliar disease with subirrigation. The increase in plant uniformity may be the result of more even and complete moistening of the growth medium and better distribution of nutrients absorbed by capillary flow. The absence of water on the leaves with subirrigation probably results in less foliar disease.
The elimination of fertilizer and pesticide leaching and runoff from the greenhouse is a very important reason for using subirrigation. In order to achieve the goal of reduced leaching and runoff the system must be maintained as a truly closed system. The immediate practical value of preventing irrigation effluent from escaping the greenhouse is not always apparent, but protection of water used for drinking and recreation from contamination is probably the most important long-term benefit of subirrigation.
Challenges to using subirrigation
Like any other new way of growing greenhouse crops there are a number of challenges to overcome to use subirrigation successfully. The two greatest challenges for most growers is the initial cost of the system and the ability to retrofit the system in an existing greenhouse. A conservative estimate of payback time is 5-10 years, but the period could be as short as 2-3 years depending on the system chosen, whether existing bench frames can be retrofitted, and whether productivity of the system is maintained at a high level.
An excellent economic analysis of subirrigation systems was recently published by Wen-fei Uva and her colleagues of Cornell University (Uva, W. L. et al., 2001). Some readers may have heard Wen-fei speak on her work at the New England Greenhouse Conference in October 2000. Her article is very detailed, but concise, and would help growers in choosing a subirrigation system.
A grower beginning to use subirrigation will have to learn some new ways of irrigating and fertilizing to use the system successfully. Growth medium and irrigation solution testing for pH and EC is one important skill to acquire. Since the growth medium tends to accumulate salts with subirrigation it is critical to be able to test for EC on a regular basis without having to wait for results from a commercial lab. Also, growers who maintain nutrient and pH levels in the irrigation solution by adding fertilizer or water to stock tanks manually rather than with automatic equipment need to carefully monitor EC and pH to maintain the proper ranges.
Successful use of subirrigation requires extra attention to cleanliness to avoid disease and insect problems. The use of pesticides and other chemicals, particularly as drenches, can be problematic with subirrigation so adoption of IPM techniques, especially pest population monitoring, is very important. Cleanliness will be discussed a little more later in the article.
Subirrigation systems
There are three basic closed, recirculating subirrigation systems currently in use in New England: ebb-and-flow benches, trough benches, and flooded floor systems. There are some variants on these, for example, the "Dutch movable tray system" is very similar to ebb-and-flow, but a complete system is highly mechanized for a number of tasks. Capillary mats and collection trays are also a form of subirrigation, but they are not normally closed systems.
Ebb-and-flow. The ebb-and-flow system is very common and is quite familiar to most growers. The system consists of a shallow, molded plastic bench top which is flooded to water and fertilize the plants; when irrigation is complete the remaining solution drains from the bench and is pumped back to a storage tank.
Ebb-and-flow is very versatile because the bench tops can accommodate all sizes of pots and bedding plant flats (although not on the same bench or irrigation zone at the same time because of the differences in water absorption rates between container sizes). The bench tops can be installed on existing frames and, with the rolling feature, ebb-and-flow benching can be 80-90% space efficient. Ebb-and-flow benches are easy to retrofit in clearspan greenhouses, but not in greenhouses with many internal supports. This system has the highest initial cost, $4 to 6/ft2, installed on existing bench frames and including tanks, delivery and return pumps, plumbing, and installation. A major portion of the cost comes from the specially molded plastic bench tops which cost about $2.50/ft2.
Troughs. This system works by running a film of irrigation solution down a slightly inclined, shallow metal trough holding the plants. The troughs empty in a return channel for recirculation. The pots or flats in the trough have plenty of opportunity to absorb solution as it runs past.
The trough system is very easy to retrofit on existing bench frames. The troughs can be obtained in various lengths and widths from a commercial manufacturer or they can be fabricated by a local metalworking firm to the growers specs. A trough system is about 70-80% space efficient, less than ebb-and-flow, because normally spaces are left between the troughs. Most growers use this system mainly for potted crops, but it is possible to do bedding plant flats if the open mesh style of tray is used to hold the paks. However, because of the trough spacing, it isn’t possible to space flat-to-flat except in an individual trough.
The initial cost of the trough system is about 2-6/ft2. The cost of this system can be fairly low if the troughs are made locally or if they are installed on existing benches. Most of the plumbing is simple to put together and inexpensive.
Flooded floor. In this system the entire floor of the greenhouse is covered with a concrete carefully designed and installed to pitch toward openings in the floor. Through these openings the irrigation solution enters to flood the floor and, following flooding, the excess drains back to the storage tank. The floors can be installed with bottom heating and divided into zones for separate flooding and bottom heating.
Flooded floors can be used to grow plants in all container types and sizes as long as separate irrigation zones are provided for each type. Space efficiency is about 85-95%. Most greenhouses with flooded floors were built with them rather than retrofitted later. The bottom heating option an efficient way of providing the proper growing temperature for the plants because the air close to the plants is heated and the larger volume of the greenhouse does not have to be heated so much.
Some growers complain that in a flood floor plants close to the flood/drain openings tend to be overwatered, especially bedding plants. Also, as in the case of any floor growing system, all the bending and squatting needed to work with the plants can be tiring for workers.
Initial cost for a flooded floor is $3-5/ft2, but costs can vary significantly depending on the amount of excavation required for the storage tanks and piping, whether or not bottom heat is installed, and whether the floor is divided into zones for separate irrigation. A very skilled concrete contractor is needed to get the pitch of the floor right to encourage proper drainage and to prevent puddling.
Fertilizing subirrigated plants
Since there is little or no nutrient leaching with subirrigation less fertilizer is needed compared to traditional overhead watering. The general rule for fertilizing subirrigated plants is to use one-half the rate (ppm) of fertilizer normally applied by overhead irrigation.
Several years ago I subirrigated poinsettias with solutions of 100, 175, 250, or 325 ppm N from peat-lite 20-10-20 fertilizer (Cox, 1998). The plants finished about the same size with nearly as large bracts as plants watered from overhead. Leaf analysis revealed normal levels of most nutrients at all fertilizer rates and no evidence of a serious nutrient deficiency or excess. EC (soluble salts) levels were higher with subirrigation than overhead watering. EC was highest near the top of the growth medium because of surface evaporation and deposition of nutrient residues. None of the treatments developed had excess EC.
The results of this study demonstrated that poinsettias grow well over a wide range of fertilizer concentrations in subirrigation including levels applied by traditional overhead watering. In fact, most growers I’ve visited in New England who subirrigate poinsettias on a large scale use fertilizer rates in the range of 200-250 ppm N. Use of fertilizer rates above 250 for subirrigated poinsettias increases the risk of excess EC leading to growth inhibition and plant injury. Learning to use an EC meter to monitor soluble salts on a regular basis is very important with subirrigation.
Chemicals and subirrigation
Many insect and disease problems can be prevented by adopting a new standard of greenhouse cleanliness and through the use of simple IPM practices to prevent infestations and infections from getting out of control.
To the author’s knowledge no pesticides are currently labeled specifically for application through a subirrigation system. This means that for now growers must apply pesticides as they would to overhead watered plants only more carefully. Heavy or frequent foliar spraying, or use of growth medium drench treatments, are risky practices because enough chemical may enter the irrigation solution to cause undesirable effects to the plants in the long term. To avoid this problem, some growers divert irrigation water from their subirrigation system for conventional disposal following a pesticide application rather than letting it return it to the tank for recirculation. In the absence of definitive information on the extent of buildup and effects of recirculated chemicals, growers should try to limit pesticide treatments as much as possible especially growth medium drenches.
Zero Tolerance™ disinfectant is one chemical that can be recirculated in subirrigation with beneficial effects. Zero Tolerance™ can control algae and a wide variety of root disease organisms. The product label has specific directions on its use in subirrigation systems.
Interestingly, there is some interest in applying plant growth regulators (PGRs) through subirrigation. Currently A-Rest™ and Bonzi® are labeled for use in "chemigation" systems including subirrigation by ebb-and-flow and from saucers. Labels for both PGRs have detailed instructions on how to apply the chemical so as not to cause plant injury and to protect water supplies. In the author’s opinion, it too early to draw conclusions about the efficacy and safety of PGR application this way but it is being studied in Florida (Barrett, 1999) and I will have some preliminary results to report soon.
Finally, cleanliness is very important. As a routine practice dead plant material and other large "stuff" should be removed from growing areas, inside tanks, and plumbing after each crop. Then the system should be disinfected with Zero Tolerance™ or Green-Shield™.
These sort of cleaning practices are not common in traditional growing (although they should be!) but they are essential for successful growing in subirrigation.
References
Barrett, J. 1999. Bottoms up with growth regulators. Grnhse. Prod. News. 9(9):32-33. (September issue).
Cox, D.A. 1998. Subirrigation vs. overhead watering for poinsettia. Floral Notes. 11(1):8-10. (July-August issue).
Uva, W. L., T.C. Weiler, and R.A. Milligan. 2001. Economic analysis of adopting zero runoff subirrigation systems in greenhouse operations in the northeast and north central United States. HortScience 36(1):167-173.
Dr. Douglas A. Cox
Plant and Soil Sciences
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
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Monday, November 26, 2012

A Grand Bargain is a Grand Betrayal

By Paul Rosenberg, 
Al Jazeera English
26 November 12
 
That the United States is centre-right and Obama must needs compromise on slashing the welfare state is a myth.

acts are stupid things," Ronald Reagan once said, hilariously misquoting Founding Father John Adams, your typical elitist Enlightenment intellectual, who actually said, "Facts are stubborn things, and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence." But in the contest between the real world of John Adams and the fantasy world bequeathed to us by Ronald Reagan, stupid and stubborn are on both on the side of the latter... and the latter is winning, hands down, as can be seen in President Obama's pursuit of a so-called "grand bargain" that would cut far more in spending than it would raise in taxes. In the Reaganite fantasy world of Washington DC, Obama represents the left. In the real world? Well, take a look for yourself.
There is a political party in the United States whose presidential candidate got over 60 million votes, and whose members - according to the General Social Survey - overwhelmingly think we're spending too little on Social Security, rather than spending too much, by a lopsided margin of 52-12. The party, of course, is the Republican Party.
There is as an ideological label claimed by over 100 million Americans, who collectively think we're spending too little on "improving and protecting the nation's health", rather than spending too much, by a 2-1 margin: 48-24. The labelled ideology, of course, is conservative.
Combine the two categories and the two spending questions, and you find that a 51.4 percent of conservative Republicans think we're spending too little on either Social Security, health care or both. Only 28.7 percent think we're spending too much, and just 7.3 percent think we're spending too much on both.
That's 7.3 percent of conservative Republicans in support of the position taken by leaders of both political parties - Republicans, who want to slash the welfare state drastically while making permanent tax cuts for the rich, and Democrats, led by President Obama, who wants a more "balanced" approach, with $2.50 cut from spending for every $1 added in taxes. Other Democrats, particularly in Congress, are trying to push back against Obama, without letting their slips show, and Obama is doing his best to hide what he's up to, but there is simply no way to get $4 trillion in cuts - almost $1 trillion already agreed to and another $3 trillion in his current proposal - without deep spending cuts that even a majority of conservative Republicans oppose.
Yet, as the Guardian reports, Obama's grassroots campaign organisation is being kept alive after the campaign, and pushing this far right agenda is their first emailed call to action. "It's now clear that ordinary citizens will also be subjected to a full bore messaging campaign to persuade them that they should regard this counterproductive sacrifice as good for them," notes leading econoblogger Yves Smith at Naked Capitalism. She also notes, correctly, that "most Americans have a simple response to the notion of 'reforming' these popular programmes: Cut military budgets and raise taxes on upper income groups".
Something we can all agree on
The figures cited above come from the General Social Survey of 2010. The GSS is the gold standard of public opinion research in the United States. Social scientists reference it more often than any other data source except for the US Census. The GSS has been asking these same questions since the 1970s, with similar ones added to its list over time. The responses to those questions reveal a much broader truth - the American people like the various different functions of the welfare state, regardless of their political ideology or affiliation. They like spending on highways, roads and bridges, mass transportation, education, child care, urban problems, alternative energy, you name it.
For example, in 2010, if we combine six questions - adding education, mass transit, highways and bridges, and urban problems to Social Security and health care - then the percentage of conservative Republicans saying we spend too much on all of them drops to a minuscule 0.4 percent, while two-thirds (66.5 percent) say we are spending too little on at least one of them. They may philosophically subscribe to the idea of shrinking government, but pragmatically they know what works and they want more of it, not less. Americans are famously described as being pragmatic, rather than ideological, and in this respect, at least, that political cliche is absolutely right.
Indeed, 2010 was only remarkable as a year in which anti-welfare state hysteria had been whipped up to a fever pitch. If one looked instead at the combined surveys for 2006, 2008 and 2010, then two-thirds of conservative Republicans (66.6 percent) thought we were spending too little on one or both of health care and Social Security, compared to just under one in seven (14 percent) who thought we were spending too much on at least one. A mere 5.1 percent thought we were spending too much on both.
In the world of stubborn and stupid, America is a centre-right nation, and it really does make no sense that Barack Obama beat Mitt Romney. He's trying to compromise with the Republicans because he has to: Their insistence on slashing the welfare state represents the overwhelming consensus of American political opinion, regardless of the last election's results. But in the forgotten, lonely world of facts, none of that is true.
The need for a restatement


While GSS data since 1973 repeatedly confirms this pattern of welfare state support even from self-identified conservatives, the pattern was actually first described and discussed in the 1967 book The Political Beliefs of Americans by Lloyd Free and Hadley Cantril, two towering pioneers of public opinion research. Their book was based on surveys conducted in 1964, almost a full decade before the GSS data begins. The disjunction between what they called "operational" liberalism and ideological conservatism was one of the dominant themes of their book (they identified ideological conservatism by agreement with a set of five questions about government interference versus individual initiative). In the final section of the final chapter of the book, titled, "The Need for a Restatement of American Ideology", they wrote:
"The paradox of a large majority of Americans qualifying as operational liberals while at the same time a majority hold to a conservative ideology has been repeatedly emphasised in this study. We have described this state of affairs as mildly schizoid, with people believing in one set of principles abstractly while acting according to another set of principles in their political behaviour. But the principles according to which the majority of Americans actually behave politically have not yet been adequately formulated in modern terms...

"There is little doubt that the time has come for a restatement of American ideology to bring it in line with what the great majority of people want and approve. Such a statement, with the right symbols incorporated, would focus people's wants, hopes, and beliefs, and provide a guide and platform to enable the American people to implement their political desires in a more intelligent, direct, and consistent manner."
This, of course, never took place. Two major political figures who might have helped foster such a restatement - Dr Martin Luther King, Jr and Robert F Kennedy - were assassinated the next year. Philosopher John Rawls' Theory of Justice actually embodied that restatement in a brilliantly simple abstract metaphor, the veil of ignorance, but his ideas never found the sort of symbolic amplification that Free and Cantril rightly recognised as crucial.
Instead, American politics took a much darker turn, one led by the indulgence of racist animosity, whose influence only became more deeply embedded over time, even as its initial expression was formally abandoned, and condemned. This turn can even be seen implicitly there in Free and Cantril's data. It's not just the case that Americans as a whole are schizoid - operationally liberal (65 percent according to their data) while ideologically conservative (50 percent). It's particularly true of a crucial subset: 23 percent of the population is both operationally liberal and ideologically conservative. And here's the kicker: The proportion of people fitting this description was double that in the five Southern states that Barry Goldwater carried in 1964 - the only states in the nation he carried aside from his home state of Arizona.
What this clearly implied, we can now see with hindsight, is that this population could be tipped either way, and was particularly vulnerable by tipping on the issue of race. Even though Goldwater himself abhorred making racist appeals, activists and even party organisations working for him had no such qualms, and the states he carried reflected that. Indeed, we can even see this today in GSS data, by looking at differences within the broad spectrum of support for government spending.
If, for example, we consider two different spending questions which bear on dealing with the problem of global warming - support for spending on the environment and for developing alternative energy (a new question just added in 2010) - we find a difference between liberals and conservatives, Democrats and Republicans, but the difference is entirely within the realm of overwhelming support. Democrats say we're spending too little versus too much on both by 57.8 percent to 0.3 percent - a factor of almost 200-to-1 - while Republicans agree by "only" 29.8 percent to 6.6 percent - a factor of more than 4-to-1. For liberals, its more than 80-to-1 (65.2 percent to 0.8 percent), while for conservatives its better than 5-to-1 (29.6 percent to 5.7 percent). So the differences are stark - but they're all in the realm of overwhelming support for more spending. It's like comparing a rabid football fan to another rabid football fan with season tickets for his extended family.
When we look at spending on poor people and blacks, however, the picture is starkly different. Liberals once again say we're spending too little rather than too much on both by an overwhelming margin, 25-to-1 (39.8 percent to 1.6 percent), but Republicans are evenly split (10.5 percent to 10.4 percent). For liberals the ratio is roughly 20-to-1 (35.3 percent to 1.8 percent), while for conservatives it's 3-to-2 (15.6 percent to 10.0 percent). But when you combine the categories, that's when the depth of the difference really stands out. For liberal Democrats, the ratio is 200-to-1 (40.8 percent to 0.2 percent), while for conservative Republicans it's more than 2-to-1 in the other direction (6.4 percent to 13.8 percent). In short, the one way to get conservative Republicans to be operationally conservative is to talk about poor people and blacks - in 19th century terms "the undeserving poor". And yes, since you asked, they really do still think that way. If you want to know where Mitt Romney's talk of the 47 percent came from, you need look no farther than this.
Just the facts
But America rejected Romney's vision, didn't they? As the last few million votes are still being totalled, his percentage of the vote has dwindled down... to 47 percent, ironically. And yet, Obama's reasoning, even his "progressive" argument to his base is articulated within a conservative framework, one that highlights the deficit as the focus of hysterical concern, even when it tries to sound sensible and sober. Thus, the email call to his volunteers mentioned above said that Obama was "working with leaders of both parties in Washington to reduce the deficit in a balanced way so we can lay the foundation for long-term middle-class job growth and prevent your taxes from going up".
The idea of a bipartisan plan to grow the economy by balanced deficit reduction is understandably quite popular. It ranks right up there with the pizza-beer-and-ice-cream-heart-healthy-weight-loss-diet plan: The perfect solution for a fact-free world. But, as a recent letter from 350 economists points out, "[T]oo many in Washington are fixated on cutting public spending to balance the budget, not on how to put people back to work and get our economy going", but "there is no theory of economics that explains how we can deflate our way to recovery". To the contrary, as they pointed out, the opposite is true: "As Great Britain, Ireland, Spain and Greece have shown, inflicting austerity on a weak economy leads to deeper recession, rising unemployment and increasing misery."
But it's not just this popular proposal is a fantasy. It's also not really that popular if you ask folks about specifics. Which is just what Democracy Corps and Campaign for America's Future did with an election eve poll. In particular, they asked about all the major components of the Simpson-Bowles Plan, the informal background for Obama's "balanced deficit reduction plan". Every single component they asked about was deemed unacceptable by landslide majorities.
    "Capping Medicare payments, forcing seniors to pay more" was rejected 79-18.
  • "Requiring deep cuts in domestic programmes without protecting programmes for infants, poor children, schools and college aid" was rejected 75-21
  • "Cutting discretionary spending, like education, child nutrition, worker training, and disease control" was rejected 72-25.
  • "Not raising taxes on the rich" was rejected 68-28.
  • "Continuing to tax investors' income at lower rates than workers' pay" was rejected 63-26.
  • "Reducing Social Security benefits over time by having them rise more slowly than the cost of living" was rejected 62-31.
  • Turning to the subject of preserving Medicare:
  • "Capping Medicare payments, forcing seniors to pay more" was rejected 79-18.
  • But - taking a very different approach, "Save Medicare costs by negotiating lower drug prices from drug companies" was supported 89-8.
Robert L Borosage warned in a cover story for the Nation magazine, which cites some of these same strong views opposing what the fantasy rhetoric hides. "The grand bargain not only offers the wrong answer; it poses the wrong question," Borosage writes. The right question, of course, is what to do about the stranglehold of wealth and income inequality that has developed over the past 30+ years, and how to secure the future of the 99 percent that have been left behind. "The call for shared sacrifice makes no sense," Borosage argues, "given that in recent decades, the rewards have not been shared."
A truly progressive vision, stubbornly rooted in the world of facts would focus like a laser beam on the right question. This is what FDR's New Deal was all about at bottom - rebuilding the nation's prosperity from the bottom up. The economic soundness of his approach can be seen in the decades of broadly shared prosperity that followed in his wake. The political soundness can be seen in the polling data cited above - particularly the measures of conservative support. Those are the stubborn facts that President Obama ought to be attending to. And leave the stubborn fantasies behind. It's time he set aside his love affair with Ronald Reagan. John Adams is waiting in the wings.

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

The nuclear subterrene Underground Bases and Tunnels:

The following was written by Richard Sauder, PhD, adapted from his book Underground Bases and Tunnels:

        The nuclear subterrene (rhymes with 'submarine') was designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico. A number of patents were filed by scientists at Los Alamos, a few federal technical documents were written - and then the whole thing just sort of faded away.

        Or did it?

        Nuclear subterrenes work by melting their way through the rock and soil, actually vitrifying it as they go, and leaving a neat, solidly glass-lined tunnel behind them.

        The heat is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor that circulates liquid lithium from the reactor core to the tunnel face, where it melts the rock. In the process of melting the rock the lithium loses some of its heat. It is then circulated back along the exterior of the tunneling machine to help cool the vitrified rock as the tunneling machine forces its way forward. The cooled lithium then circulates back to the reactor where the whole cycle starts over. In this way the nuclear subterrene slices through the rock like a nuclear powered, 2,000 degree Fahrenheit (1,100 Celsius) earthworm, boring its way deep underground.

        The United States Atomic Energy Commission and the United States Energy Research and Development Administration took out Patents in the 1970s for nuclear subterrenes. The first patent, in 1972 went to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

        The nuclear subterrene has an advantage over mechanical TBMs in that it produces no muck that must be disposed of by conveyors, trains, trucks, etc. This greatly simplifies tunneling. If nuclear subterrenes actually exist (and I do not know if they do) their presence, and the tunnels they make, could be very hard to detect, for the simple reason that there would not be the tell-tale muck piles or tailings dumps that are associated with the conventional tunneling activities.

        The 1972 patent makes this clear. It states:

            "... (D)ebris may be disposed of as melted rock both as a lining for the hole and as a dispersal in cracks produced in the surrounding rock. The rock-melting drill is of a shape and is propelled under sufficient pressure to produce and extend cracks in solid rock radially around the bore by means of hydrostatic pressure developed in the molten rock ahead of the advancing rock drill penetrator. All melt not used in glass-lining the bore is forced into the cracks where it freezes and remains ...

            "... Such a (vitreous) lining eliminates, in most cases, the expensive and cumbersome problem of debris elimination and at the same time achieves the advantage of a casing type of bore hole liner."

            (U.S. Patent No. 3,693,731 dated Sept. 26, 1972)

        There you have it: a tunneling machine that creates no muck, and leaves a smooth, vitreous (glassy) tunnel lining behind.

        Another patent three years later was for:

            A tunneling machine for producing large tunnels in soft rock or wet, clayey, unconsolidated or bouldery earth by simultaneously detaching the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and forming a supporting excavation wall liner by deflecting the molten materials against the excavation walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous wall supporting liner, and detaching the tunnel face circumscribed by the kerf with powered mechanical earth detachment means and in which the heat required for melting the kerf and liner material is provided by a compact nuclear reactor.

        This 1975 patent further specifies that the machine is intended to excavate tunnels up to 12 meters in diameter or more. This means tunnels of 40 ft. or more in diameter. The kerf is the outside boundary of the tunnel wall that a boring machine gouges out as it bores through the ground or rock. So, in ordinary English, this machine will melt a circular boundary into the tunnel face. The melted rock will be forced to the outside of the tunnel by the tunnel machine, where it will form a hard, glassy tunnel lining (see the appropriate detail in the patent itself, as shown in Illustration 41). At the same time, mechanical tunnel boring equipment will grind up the rock and soil detached by the melted kerf and pass it to the rear of the machine for disposal by conveyor, slurry pipeline, etc.

        And yet a third patent was issued to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration just 21 days later, on 27 May 1975 for a machine remarkably similar to the machine patented on 6 May 1975. The abstract describes:

            A tunneling machine for producing large tunnels in rock by progressive detachment of the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and simultaneously forming an initial tunnel wall support by deflecting the molten materials against the tunnel walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous liner; and fragmenting the tunnel core circumscribed by the kerf by thermal stress fracturing and in which the heat required for such operations is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor.

        This machine would also be capable of making a glass-lined tunnel of 40 ft. in diameter or more.

        Perhaps some of my readers have heard the same rumors that I have heard swirling in the UFO literature and on the UFO grapevine: stories of deep, secret, glass-walled tunnels excavated by laser powered tunneling machines. I do not know if these stories are true. If they are, however, it may be that the glass-walled tunnels are made by the nuclear subterrenes described in these patents. The careful reader will note that all of these patents were obtained by agencies of the United States government. Further, all but one of the inventors are from Los Alamos, New Mexico. Of course, Los Alamos National Lab is itself the subject of considerable rumors about underground tunnels and chambers, Little Greys or "EBEs", and various other covert goings-on.

        A 1973 Los Alamos study entitled Systems and Cost Analysis for a Nuclear Subterrene Tunneling Machine: A Preliminary Study, concluded that nuclear subterrene tunneling machines (NSTMs) would be very cost effective, compared to conventional TBMs.

        It stated:

            Tunneling costs for NSTMs are very close to those for TBMs, if operating conditions for TBMs are favorable. However, for variable formations and unfavorable conditions such as soft, wet, bouldery ground or very hard rock, the NSTMs are far more effective. Estimates of cost and percentage use of NSTMs to satisfy U.S. transportation tunnel demands indicate a potential cost savings of 850 million dollars (1969 dollars) throughout 1990. An estimated NSTM prototype demonstration cost of $100 million over an eight-year period results in a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio of 8.5.

        ...Was the 1973 feasibility study only idle speculation, and is the astonishingly similar patent two years later only a wild coincidence? As many a frustrated inventor will tell you, the U.S. Patent Office only issues the paperwork when it's satisfied that the thing in question actually works!

        In 1975 the National Science Foundation commissioned another cost analysis of the nuclear subterrene. The A.A. Mathews Construction and Engineering Company of Rockville, Maryland produced a comprehensive report with two, separate, lengthy appendices, one 235 and the other 328 pages.

        A.A. Mathews calculated costs for constructing three different sized tunnels in the Southern California area in 1974. The three tunnel diameters were:

                        a) 3.05 meters (10 ft.)
                        b) 4.73 meters (15.5 ft.)

                        c) 6.25 meters (20.5 ft.)

        Comparing the cost of using NSTMs to the cost of mechanical TBMs, A.A. Mathews determined:

            Savings of 12 percent for the 4.73 meter (15.5 ft.) tunnel and 6 percent for the 6.25 meter (20.5 foot) tunnel were found to be possible using the NSTM as compared to current methods. A penalty of 30 percent was found for the 3.05 meter (10 foot) tunnel using the NSTM. The cost advantage for the NSTM results from the combination of,

                (a) a capital rather than labor intensive system,

                (b) formation of both initial support and final lining in conjunction with the excavation process.

        This report has a number of interesting features. It is noteworthy in the first place that the government commissioned such a lengthy and detailed analysis of the cost of operating a nuclear subterrenes. Just as intriguing is the fact that the study found that the tunnels in the 15 ft. to 20 ft. diameter range can be more economically excavated by NSTMs than by conventional TBMs.

        Finally, the southern California location that was chosen for tunneling cost analysis is thought provoking. This is precisely one of the regions of the West where there is rumored to be a secret tunnel system. Did the A.A. Mathews study represent part of the planning for an actual covert tunneling project that was subsequently carried out, when it was determined that it was more cost effective to use NSTMs than mechanical TBMs?

        Whether or not nuclear subterrene tunneling machines have been used, or are being used, for subterranean tunneling is a question I cannot presently answer.

    __________________________
The following was written by Richard Sauder, PhD, adapted from his book Underground Bases and Tunnels:

The nuclear subterrene (rhymes with 'submarine')
was designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico. A number of patents were filed by scientists at Los Alamos, a few federal technical documents were written - and then the whole thing just sort of faded away.

Or did it?

Nuclear subterrenes work by melting their way through the rock and soil, actually vitrifying it as they go, and leaving a neat, solidly glass-lined tunnel behind them.

The heat is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor that circulates liquid lithium from the reactor core to the tunnel face, where it melts the rock. In the process of melting the rock the lithium loses some of its heat. It is then circulated back along the exterior of the tunneling machine to help cool the vitrified rock as the tunneling machine forces its way forward. The cooled lithium then circulates back to the reactor where the whole cycle starts over. In this way the nuclear subterrene slices through the rock like a nuclear powered, 2,000 degree Fahrenheit (1,100 Celsius) earthworm, boring its way deep underground.

The United States Atomic Energy Commission and the United States Energy Research and Development Administration took out Patents in the 1970s for nuclear subterrenes. The first patent, in 1972 went to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

The nuclear subterrene has an advantage over mechanical TBMs in that it produces no muck that must be disposed of by conveyors, trains, trucks, etc. This greatly simplifies tunneling. If nuclear subterrenes actually exist (and I do not know if they do) their presence, and the tunnels they make, could be very hard to detect, for the simple reason that there would not be the tell-tale muck piles or tailings dumps that are associated with the conventional tunneling activities.

The 1972 patent makes this clear. It states:

"... (D)ebris may be disposed of as melted rock both as a lining for the hole and as a dispersal in cracks produced in the surrounding rock. The rock-melting drill is of a shape and is propelled under sufficient pressure to produce and extend cracks in solid rock radially around the bore by means of hydrostatic pressure developed in the molten rock ahead of the advancing rock drill penetrator. All melt not used in glass-lining the bore is forced into the cracks where it freezes and remains ...

"... Such a (vitreous) lining eliminates, in most cases, the expensive and cumbersome problem of debris elimination and at the same time achieves the advantage of a casing type of bore hole liner."

(U.S. Patent No. 3,693,731 dated Sept. 26, 1972)

There you have it: a tunneling machine that creates no muck, and leaves a smooth, vitreous (glassy) tunnel lining behind.

Another patent three years later was for:

A tunneling machine for producing large tunnels in soft rock or wet, clayey, unconsolidated or bouldery earth by simultaneously detaching the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and forming a supporting excavation wall liner by deflecting the molten materials against the excavation walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous wall supporting liner, and detaching the tunnel face circumscribed by the kerf with powered mechanical earth detachment means and in which the heat required for melting the kerf and liner material is provided by a compact nuclear reactor.

This 1975 patent further specifies that the machine is intended to excavate tunnels up to 12 meters in diameter or more. This means tunnels of 40 ft. or more in diameter. The kerf is the outside boundary of the tunnel wall that a boring machine gouges out as it bores through the ground or rock. So, in ordinary English, this machine will melt a circular boundary into the tunnel face. The melted rock will be forced to the outside of the tunnel by the tunnel machine, where it will form a hard, glassy tunnel lining (see the appropriate detail in the patent itself, as shown in Illustration 41). At the same time, mechanical tunnel boring equipment will grind up the rock and soil detached by the melted kerf and pass it to the rear of the machine for disposal by conveyor, slurry pipeline, etc.

And yet a third patent was issued to the United States Energy Research and Development Administration just 21 days later, on 27 May 1975 for a machine remarkably similar to the machine patented on 6 May 1975. The abstract describes:

A tunneling machine for producing large tunnels in rock by progressive detachment of the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and simultaneously forming an initial tunnel wall support by deflecting the molten materials against the tunnel walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous liner; and fragmenting the tunnel core circumscribed by the kerf by thermal stress fracturing and in which the heat required for such operations is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor.


This machine would also be capable of making a glass-lined tunnel of 40 ft. in diameter or more.

Perhaps some of my readers have heard the same rumors that I have heard swirling in the UFO literature and on the UFO grapevine: stories of deep, secret, glass-walled tunnels excavated by laser powered tunneling machines. I do not know if these stories are true. If they are, however, it may be that the glass-walled tunnels are made by the nuclear subterrenes described in these patents. The careful reader will note that all of these patents were obtained by agencies of the United States government. Further, all but one of the inventors are from Los Alamos, New Mexico. Of course, Los Alamos National Lab is itself the subject of considerable rumors about underground tunnels and chambers, Little Greys or "EBEs", and various other covert goings-on.

A 1973 Los Alamos study entitled Systems and Cost Analysis for a Nuclear Subterrene Tunneling Machine: A Preliminary Study, concluded that nuclear subterrene tunneling machines (NSTMs) would be very cost effective, compared to conventional TBMs.

It stated:

Tunneling costs for NSTMs are very close to those for TBMs, if operating conditions for TBMs are favorable. However, for variable formations and unfavorable conditions such as soft, wet, bouldery ground or very hard rock, the NSTMs are far more effective. Estimates of cost and percentage use of NSTMs to satisfy U.S. transportation tunnel demands indicate a potential cost savings of 850 million dollars (1969 dollars) throughout 1990. An estimated NSTM prototype demonstration cost of $100 million over an eight-year period results in a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio of 8.5.

...Was the 1973 feasibility study only idle speculation, and is the astonishingly similar patent two years later only a wild coincidence? As many a frustrated inventor will tell you, the U.S. Patent Office only issues the paperwork when it's satisfied that the thing in question actually works!

In 1975 the National Science Foundation commissioned another cost analysis of the nuclear subterrene. The A.A. Mathews Construction and Engineering Company of Rockville, Maryland produced a comprehensive report with two, separate, lengthy appendices, one 235 and the other 328 pages.

A.A. Mathews calculated costs for constructing three different sized tunnels in the Southern California area in 1974. The three tunnel diameters were:

a) 3.05 meters (10 ft.)
b) 4.73 meters (15.5 ft.)

c) 6.25 meters (20.5 ft.)

Comparing the cost of using NSTMs to the cost of mechanical TBMs, A.A. Mathews determined:

Savings of 12 percent for the 4.73 meter (15.5 ft.) tunnel and 6 percent for the 6.25 meter (20.5 foot) tunnel were found to be possible using the NSTM as compared to current methods. A penalty of 30 percent was found for the 3.05 meter (10 foot) tunnel using the NSTM. The cost advantage for the NSTM results from the combination of,

(a) a capital rather than labor intensive system,

(b) formation of both initial support and final lining in conjunction with the excavation process.

This report has a number of interesting features. It is noteworthy in the first place that the government commissioned such a lengthy and detailed analysis of the cost of operating a nuclear subterrenes. Just as intriguing is the fact that the study found that the tunnels in the 15 ft. to 20 ft. diameter range can be more economically excavated by NSTMs than by conventional TBMs.

Finally, the southern California location that was chosen for tunneling cost analysis is thought provoking. This is precisely one of the regions of the West where there is rumored to be a secret tunnel system. Did the A.A. Mathews study represent part of the planning for an actual covert tunneling project that was subsequently carried out, when it was determined that it was more cost effective to use NSTMs than mechanical TBMs?

Whether or not nuclear subterrene tunneling machines have been used, or are being used, for subterranean tunneling is a question I cannot presently answer.
 
 
 From Dr Bill Deagle's December 2006 Granada Forum Lecture:

I took care of John Fialla, who was best friends with Phil Schneider. How many people know about Phil Schneider? Well, they were using tunneling machines back in the mid-90s that could tunnel through a rock face at seven miles per day, that could cut through a rock face with high-energy impact lasers that could blow the nano-sized particles of rock so that there was no debris left, forming an obsidian-like core, and laying an inner core for unidirectional maglev trains that travel at Mach 2 to 2.8 underground between these very very powerful and organized cities.

There's 132 under the United States, an average of 5.36 to 7.24 cubic miles in size at an average of 1.5 to 4.5 miles underground, built, by and large, most of them in areas away from geotectonic areas - but there's going to be lots of new geotectonic faults established when you have force 11, 12, 13, 14 earthquakes hit the Earth.

Why are they rushing to do this? Because they know that catastrophe is coming. And where's this money coming from? It's not coming from our regular Black Op budget. It's coming from the illegal sale of drugs. In the United States there's at least, by conservative estimates, a quarter of a trillion to a half a trillion of illegal drugs just sold in the United States that goes directly into underground budgets, and 90-95% goes to the DUMBs [Deep Underground Military Bases].

Descendant’s of Stephen Robinson, Sr. Temperance Hall, Tennessee




Temperance Hall’s First Settler
Compiled by Jerry L. Winfrey


From the book: Temperance Hall Remembers Book II
A Brief History of Temperance Hall, Tennessee
Compiled by Marjorie Hayes – January 1990

Published by Temperance Hall Community Club
Pgs. 92 – 138

Stephen Robinson, Sr., my great-great-great-greatgrandfather, was the first settler to
arrive near the present site of Temperance Hall. Stephen, a native of Virginia, and his
wife, Elizabeth “Betty” (Holland) Robinson, sold their land in Cumberland County,
Virginia, in 1797 to Field Robinson, his brother. Stephen, Elizabeth, and their family
apparently left Virginia at that time to come to Tennessee. For, a son, John Robinson,
was born near the settlement at Nashville in the newly organized state of Tennessee, on
27 January 1798.

According to the history of DeKalb County, Tennessee, written by
Thomas 0. Webb, Stephen Robinson first came to the area which is now DeKalb County
about 1798 with Adam Dale, who was the county’s first permanent settler, and Leonard
and John Fite, who were brothers. These men were looking for good land and brought the
first wagon into the Smith Fork Valley.

Stephen Robinson, Sr., returned with his family and house— hold goods to become the
first settler at Temperance Hall. In an account which was written on the life of John
Elbert Robinson, Stephen's grandson, for Goodspeed’s history, it is relit├ęd that John
Robinson, the son of Stephen who was born near Nashville, was brought by his father
while still an infant to the farm where John Elbert Robinson later lived. At the time of the
arrival of Stephen Robinson, the Temperance Hall area was an unbroken canebrake
which was infested by many Indians who were both treacherous and troublesome. There
were extremely large numbers of wild animals, and bears often roamed the lands which
Stephen Robinson had purchased. The house which Stephen Robinson built was located
on the site where Ethel (Sykes) Hayes, now lives.

Family Background
Stephen Robinson, Sr., was a son of Edward and Judith Robinson. Edward Robinson was
born about 1720-1730 in Virginia, probably in Henrico County, and died about 1782 in
Cumberland County, Virginia. His estate was administered by his son, Stephen, on 12
July 1794. Edward Robinson furnished beef to the army during the Revolutionary War.
The maiden name of his wife, Judith, is unknown. Judith’s will which was dated 12
August 1806, was recorded in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 28 November 1806.
Edward Robinson, father of Stephen Robinson, Sr. was a son of John Robinson who was
born between 1690 and 1760, probably in Henrico County, Virginia. John Robinson was
married about 1720 to Tabitha Jones, who was a daughter of Edward Jones and Mary
(Field) Jones. On 26 March 1726, John Robinson and his wife, Tabitha, sold land in
Henrico County which was located two miles below the falls in the James River to
Joseph Mayo.

On 7 February 1763, John Robinson deeded land in Cumberland County,Virginia,
to his son, Edward Robinson. John stated that the reasons for this transfer were
that he was moving and his affection for his son Edward. On 17 February 1763, John
Robinson deeded land on Deep Creek in Cumberland County to his son, Joseph
Robinson. The reasons given for this transfer of land were that he was moving and the
goodwill and affection for his son Joseph. On 26 February 1763, John Robinson deeded
land in Cumberland County to Hezekiah Robinson because he was moving. John’s lands
were located on Deep Creek and Muddy Creek in Cumberland County. The estate of
John Robinson was appraised on 25 August 1766. His will, which was written on 11
December 1767, was proven in Cumberland County, Virginia1 on 25 April 1768. John’s
wife, Tabitha, had died prior to 1768.

Elizabeth “Betty” Holland, wife of Stephen Robinson, Sr., was a daughter of Dr. George
Holland and Sarah (Ford) Holland who were married in Goochland County, Virginia, on
27 August 1746 Sarah (Ford) Holland, who died prior to 1757, was a daughter of William
Ford. Dr. George Holland was married secondly to Mary Coleman on 21 March 1757 in
Orange County, Virginia. Dr. George Holland was a son of Michael Holland and his wife
Judith whose maiden name is UNKNOWN. Michael Holland was born about 1685. His
will, which was dated 17 March 1746 was probated in Goochland County, Virginia. The
will of Judith Holland was probated on 19 November 1751.

The Lives Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland) Robinson
Stephen Robinson, Sr., son of Edward Robinson and Judith Robinson, was born between
1740 and 1750 in Cumberland County, Virginia. Stephen was a private in the Virginia
militia. He was married in Louisa County, Virginia, on 13 June 1774 to Elizabeth
Holland, daughter of Dr. George Holland and Sarah (Ford) Holland, Elizabeth was born
between 1750 and 1760. They were the parents of at least eleven children. Stephen
Robinson owned land and slaves in Cumberland County, Virginia, as early as 1783. He
appears on the tax lists in Virginia from 1792 until 1797. It appears that their first nine
children were born in Cumberland County, Virginia.

Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland) Robinson remained in Cumberland
County, Virginia, until about 1797 when they moved to Tennessee. At first, they
remained near the settlement at Nashville where their son John was born on 27 January
1798. By the following year, the rich, unsettled land along Smith Fork Creek near the
present site of Temperance Hall had become their home. Stephen Robinson, Sr., appears
in the 1820 census for Smith County, Tennessee. At that time, he owned fourteen slaves.
Stephen also appears in the 1830 census of Smith County. At that time, Stephen was
between 50 and 90 years of age, and Elizabeth was between 70 and 80 years of age.
Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth “Betty” (Holland) Robinson spent the remaining
years of their lives at their home in Smith County near the present location of
Temperance Hall. Stephen Robinson, Sr., died about 1835, and “Betty” died about 1838.
The will of Stephen Robinson is dated 11 March 1828 and was recorded in Smith
County on 16 September 1 835. The will of Elizabeth Robinson, widow of Stephen, was
recorded in Smith County on 12 April 1 1843 An inventory of the personal property of
this estate is very lengthy and contains such items as glassware which one would not
expect to be found in this area at such an early date.

There is some speculation as to the location of the graves of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and
Elizabeth (Holland) Robinson. I believe that they were buried on their farm where Ethel
(Sykes) Hayes now lives. Others are of the opinion that they must have been buried at
the Edward Robinson Cemetery on the west side of Smith Fork Creek about three-fourths
of a mile below Dowelltown. There are three very old graves in this cemetery that are
covered with large flat rocks which are thought by some descendants to be the graves of
Stephen and Elizabeth. I believe that if Stephen died at his home, he would have been
buried nearer to his home. However, there Is always the possibility that Stephen was at
the home of his grandson, Edward Robinson, at the time of’ his death and was buried
near his grandson’s home.

The Will of Stephen Robinson
The most important document which I have located in my compilation of this history of
Stephen Robinson and his descendants is a copy of his will which was given to me
several years ago by Esmerelda (Robinson) Smith. It is the only record which I have
found that lists the children of Stephen and Elizabeth Robinson, and It contains valuable
information concerning their property.

The Descendants of Stephen Robinson Sr. and Elizabeth “Betty” Holland
George Robinson, son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland) Robinson was
born about 1775 in Cumberland County, Virginia, and died after 1850 in DeKalb County,
Tennessee. According to the history of DeKalb County by Thomas G. Webb, George
Robinson was one of the early set tiers at Cove Hollow.

George Robinson was married to a daughter of William Williams who died in 1822. The name of his wife in the 1850 census of DeKalb County appears to be “Leron.” She was born about 1786 in Virginia and died after 1850. George Robinson appears in the census records of Smith County, Tennessee, in 1820 and 1830 and several children are listed in his household.

 In 1850 George was living In the 15th District of DeKalb County. The names of only three of his children are known. Apparently, the others died while young. These three children are:

(1) Jonas Robinson was born about 1807 in Tennessee and died about 1856 in
DeKalb County, Tennessee. Jonas was married about 1830 to Frances “Fannie”
Hindsley, daughter of Benjamin and Ruth Hindsley. “Fannie” was born about
1806 in North Carolina and died 5 September 1887 In DeKalb County,
Tennessee. Jonas and “Fannie” were living in the 10th District of DeKalb County
in 1 1840 and in the 15th District of DeKalb County in 1850. “Fannie” did not
remarry after his death in 1856 and appears in the census records for the 15th
District of DeKalb County In 1860, 1870, and 1880. In 1880, she was living with
her son-in-law and daughter, Asa Carder and Mary T. (Robinson) Carder.
      
 Jonas Robinson and Frances “Fannie” (Hindsley) Robinson were the parents of the
following seven children who were all born in the 15th District of DeKalb
County, Tennessee.

1 Eliza Helen Robinson was born 30 November 1832. She was married In
DeKalb County on 23 December 1852 to Isaac “Ike” Hayes who was born
About 1811 in Georgia. They were living in the 15th District of DeKalb
County in 1860, 1870, and 1880. They were the parents of John T. Hayes
who was born about 1851+, Richard Hayes who was born about 1857,
Keziah Hayes who was born about 1860, Rebecca Hayes who was born
about 1862, Sarah L. Hayes who was born about 1865, Mary S. Hayes
who was born about 1868, Isaac Hayes who was born about 1871, and
Eliza Hayes who was born about 1874.

2 James L. Robinson was born 4 November 1 1834 and died after 1900. He
was married three times. It appears that his first marriage was to Mary
Carder on 6 December 1854 in DeKalb County. It also appears that they
did not have any children. On 13 May 1858, James Robinson was married
in DeKalb County to Margaret Frances Maxwell who was born about
1812 and died before 1886. She was postmistress at Temperance Hall.
They were living In the 15th District of DeKalb County In 1860, 1870,
and 1880.

They were the parents of Joseph Robinson who was born about
1860, William B. Robinson who was born about 1863, Mary L. Robinson
who was born about 1866, John D. Robinson who was born about 1868,
Nancy Frances Robinson who was born about 1870 and was married to
John Burley Moss, Alonzo Robinson who was born about 1872, Samuel
Robinson who was born in February of 1874 and was married to Cora
Bell. Starnes (See the Stokes history.), and Melissa Robinson who was
born about 1878. James L. Robinson was married about 1886 to Emma,
who was born in May of 1862.

They appear in the 1900 census for the 15th District of DeKalb County and were the parents of Winkett Robinson who was born In October of 1888, Claud Robinson who was born in August of 1890, Josie Robinson who was born In September of 1892,
Charlie Robinson who was born in January of 1895, Hobert Robinson who
was born in July of 1897, and a child who died in infancy.


3 Malissa Robinson was born 25 January 1836. She was married to Eli D.
Hutchins in DeKalb County on 12 October 1854 Eli was born about 1834
and they appear in the 1 15th District of DeKalb County in 1860 and 1870.
They were the parents of George W. Hutchins who was born about 1857,
Sarah F. Hutchins who was born about 1862, Mandy Hutchins who was
born about 1865, and William Hutchins who was born about 1868. In
1870, the occupation of Eli Hutchins was listed as “Cooper.”

4 Ambrose Robinson was born 31 January 1837. I have no other information
about him.

5 Elizabeth Jane “Sis” Robinson was born 19 September 1840 and died 16
March 1885 at Nashville. She was married in DeKalb County in 1864 to
James Jarvis Maxwell. Their marriage license was issued on 17 November
1861, but no return was made. James J. Maxwell was born about 1840 in
DeKalb County and died in 1896 at Nashville. He was a son of Samuel
Pinkney William Maxwell and Nancy Oliver (Fitts) Maxwell. James was a
blacksmith. They were living in the 15th District of DeKalb County in
1870. Their children include Margaret Maxwell who was born about 1866,
William S. Maxwell who was born about 1867, and Ulysses Maxwell who
was born about 1869. There were other children. Their descendant,
Annelle (Mrs. David C.) Underwood, gave me much information on this
family In the 1960’s.

6 Mary T. Robinson was born 17 September 1842 and died 9 March 1925.
She was married in DeKalb County on 16 January 1873 to Asa Carter who
was born 13 March 1852 and died 11 October 1928. They are buried at the
Tubbs Cemetery at Temperance Hall. They were the parents of W. M.
Carter who was born 14 January 1875 and died 15 May 1908, Minnie
Carter who was born about 1878, Henry Carter who was born about 1879,
and Claude Carter who was born 16 March 1884 and died 5 December
1956. Claude C. Carter was married to Alta Mitchell who was born 6 June
1887 and died 6 October 1952. They are buried at the Gordonsville
Cemetery in Smith County. Asa Carter and Mary T. (Robinson) Carter
were the parents of two other children whose names I do not know. Asa
and Mary were living in the 15th District of DeKalb County in 1880 and
1900. In 1900, her mother was living with them. The name is spelled both
Carder and Carter in records which I have seen.

7 Frances Robinson was born 29 May 1845 and died after 1900. She was
married in DeKalb County on 15 February 1 1864 to John Riley Carter
who was born 25 December 1838 and died 5 August 1906. They are
buried at the Pisgah Methodist Church Cemetery on Hannah’s Branch.
The name is spelled Carder on their tombstone. In 1870, they were living
in the 15th District of DeKalb County. In 1880, they were living in the
12th District, and In 1900, they were again living in the 15th District.
They were the parents of Mandy J. Carter who was born about 1866 Asa
Carter who was born 3 November 1868 and died 28 October 1947 Riley
Carter who was born in April of 1875, Sarah Carter who was born about
1877, Pearl Carter who was born in May of 1880, and Mollie Carter who
was born in April of 1884. There were four other children whose names I
do not know. Grady Carter, whose life Is given in the history of the Stokes
family, was a son of this Asa Carter.

(2) Ambrose Robinson was born about 1812 in Tennessee and died before 1900. In
1840 he was living alone in the 10th District of DeKalb County. In 1850, he was
living in the 15th District. Milberry Page, a female who was 30 years of age, and
Louisa Parsons, who was four, were living with him. Ambrose Robinson
was married in DeKalb County on 21 June 1859 to Zenora Dooling who
is listed as “Zena” in the census records. She was born about 1821 in
Tennessee. Ambrose and “Zena” were living in the 15th District of
DeKalb County in 1860, 1870, and 1880 and do not appear to have had
any children.

(3) Drucilla Robinson, who is listed as “Lucy” in the 1850 census of DeKalb County,
was born about 1818 in Tennessee. She was living with her parents in the 15th
District of DeKalb County in 1850. Apparently, she was never married.

(2) Polly Robinson, daughter of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born about 1777 in Cumberland County, Virginia. She was still
alive at the time her father’s will was written in 1828, and she was named as
“Polly Ules.” Polly appears to have been the wife of Frederick Ules who was
living in Smith County, Tennessee in 1830. The household of Frederick Ules at
that time consisted of Frederick who was born between 1760 and 1770, a son or
son-in-law who was born between1800 and 1810, his wife, probably Polly, who
was born between 1770 and 1780, and a daughter or daughter-ins-law who was
born between 1810 and 1815. According to my notes two of their daughters were:

(1) Mary Uhls
(2) Elizabeth Uhls
3) James Robinson, son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born 26 January 1780 in Cumberland County, Virginia, and died
16 October 1853 in Wilson County, Tennessee. James Robinson was married to
Elizabeth Fite, daughter of Leonard Fite and Margaret (Crosse) Fite. Elizabeth
was born about 1783 in Lincoln County, North Carolina. They are buried at the
Talley Graveyard at Roundtop near Alexandria in Wilson County. James
Robinson and Elizabeth (Fite) Robinson were the parents of at least the following
ten children:
(1) Edward “Ned” Robinson was born 27 October 1807 and died 3 November
1863. He was married on 3 October 1828 to Margaret Truitt, daughter of
Wingate Truitt. She was born 7 December 1812 and died 27 December
1882. They are buried at the Edward Robinson Cemetery on the west side
of Smith Fork Creek about three-fourths of a mile below Doweiltown in
DeKalb County. They were living in the 2nd District of DeKalb County in
1 1840 1850, and 1860. In 1850, Edward Robinson’s land was valued at
$5,800.00, and he owned ten slaves. In 1860 he owned twenty slaves. His
real estate was valued at$27,300.00, and his personal property was valued
at $34,2400.00. According to these figures, he was the wealthiest man in
DeKalb County at that time. In 1870, Edward’s widow, Margaret, was
living in the2nd District of DeKalb County. Her real estate was valued at
$4,500.00, and her personal property was valued at $1,500.00. Edward
Robinson and Margaret (Truitt) Robinson were the parents of the
following twelve children:

1 Elizabeth Robinson was born 28 October 1829 and died 24 July
1906. She was married on 12 February 1846 to Thomas Jefferson
Williams who was born 30 September 1826 and died 31 December
1879. They are buried at the Edward Robinson Cemetery near
Doweiltown. They were living In the 4th District of DeKalb
County in 1850 and 1860 and were the parents of the following
children: Nancy P. Williams who was born In 1847 died In 1925,
and was married on 9 November 1865 in DeKalb County to James
H. White who was born In 1843 and died In 1884 Rebecca Louisa
Williams who was born In 1848 died In 1935, and was married in
DeKalb County on 10 January 1869 to Alexander Hamilton
Robinson, Jr., who was born in 1 1844 and died in 1925; Mary H.
Williams who was born about 1850; John E.Williams who was
born about 1855; Thomas Williams; Charlie Williams; and a
daughter who was married to William Grooms.
2 Nancy Robinson was born 28 March 1831 and died in 1848. She
was married to a White and had no children.
3 Wingate Truitt Robinson was born 30 October 1832 and died 8 J le
903 at Baird’s Mill in Wilson County. He was married on 21
September 1851 in DeKalb County to Lucy J. Callicott, daughter
of Beverly and Elizabeth (Upton) Callicott.
Lucy was born 26 October 1834 at Hickman in Smith County and
died 18 September 1901. They are buried at Salem Cemetery In
Liberty. They were living in the 17th District of DeKalb County in
1860. In 1880, they were living in the2nd District of DeKalb
County, and In 1900, they were living in the 20th District. Wingate
T. Robinson was a farmer, trader, and mill operator at Dowelltown.
During the Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a first
lieutenant in Company K of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry. He was a
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Methodist
Church, and the Free and Accepted Masons. He represented
DeKalb and Wilson Counties in the 34th General Assembly of the
Tennessee State Senate as a Republican, from 25 January 1867 to 6
6ctober 1567. From 1867 to 1869, he represented DeKalb County
in the 35th General Assembly of the Tennessee House of
Representatives. Wingate T. Robinson also served as quarterly
court judge for DeKalb County In the 1880’s. Wingate Truitt
Robinson and Lucy 3. (Callicott) Robinson were the parents of the
following three children: Mary E. Robinson who was born about
1855 and was married to J. N. Turrentine on 2 January 1873 in
DeKalb County; Beverly W. Robinson who was born in 1857, died
in 1 1954, and was married to Sallie Turrentine who was born in
1859 and died in 1959; and Mattie Ann Robinson who was born in
1861, died in 1 1944, and was married to Dr. James R. Hudson
who was born in 1859 and died in 1936.

4 Tabitha Robinson was born 6 September 1834. She was married on
22 November 1849 in DeKalb County to Andrew Jackson Yeargin
who was born 3 October 1829 and died 27 November 1885. He is
buried at the Edward Robinson Cemetery. Her grave is apparently
unmarked. They were living in the 13th District of DeKalb County
in 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. They were the parents of the
following children: William C. Yeargin who was born In
November of 1850 and was married first to Ada West and
secondly in DeKalb County on 16 January 1877 to Margaret
“Maggie” Knight who was born in December of 1854; Thomas 3.
Yeargin who was born about 1856 and was married to Caroline
who was born about 1855; Julia C. Yeargln who was born in 1859,
died in 1925, and was married to Thomas M. Rowland who was
born in 1856, and died in 1931; Alice Yeargin who was born 2
January 1862, was married to L. Robert Patton who was born 23
May 1 852, and lived at Alexandria; and Emaline “Emily” Yeargin
who was born 17 August 1864, died 2 January 1936, and was
married to Joseph Levi Hayes who was born 2 April 1858, died 9
December 1914, and lived at Alexandria.

5 William Robinson was born 4 July 1838 and died 27 June 1901.
He was married in DeKalb County on 8 September 1859 to
Catherine Clifton Smith, daughter of Nicholas Smith and Penelope
(Summers) Smith. Catherine was born 30 April 1812 at Temperance
Hall and died 12 July 1884. William Robinson was a
justice of the peace for thirty years and was a deacon at Salem
Baptist Church. They lived near the “old toll-gate place,” and are
buried at the William Robinson Cemetery between Forks of the
Pike and Alexandria. They were the parents of the following
twelve children: Adella A. Robinson who was born 14 June 1860
and died 10 September 1861. Charles Edward Robinson who was
born 20 July 1866 lived at Milton, and was married on 8 January
1891 to Sallie Litchford who was born 29 July 1870 and died 2
May 1 1930; Earnest J. Robinson who was born 20 March 1867
and died 22 January 1869; Josephine Etta Robinson who was born
29 January 1869 and died 23 May 1883; Louella Finley Robinson
who was born 29 January 1871, died 1 February 1924, and was
married to George B. Givan who was born 2 April 1865 and died
18 December 1962; Matthias West Robinson who was born 18
February 1873 and was married on 24 May 1899 to Mary Elenor
“Lena” Couch who was born 26 July 1878 and died in 1960;

Alice Penelope Robinson who was born 6 Apr Il 1875 and was married
to Horace Keaton; Maggie Nola Robinson who was born 2 June
1877, died 21 February 1934, and was married to Walter Fiske
Rooper who was born 30 October 1876 and died 21 September
1958; Martha Lena Robinson who was born 7 April 1879, was
married to Rev. Douglas T. Reed, and lived at Mt. Herman,
California; Edna Lee Robinson, a twin who was born in January of
1881 and died 1 October 1881; Elmer Craine Robinson, a twin,
who was born in January of 1881 and died in infancy; and Cornelia
Emma Robinson who was born 9 AprIl 1882 and died in 1978. She
was married to Arthur 0. Groom who was born In 1881 and died in
1954. William Robinson was married secondly on 12 March 1885
to Mrs. Nancy Ann (Ford) Young, daughter of Thomas Ford. She
was born 4 October 1851 and died 21 January 1924. They were the
parents of the following four children: Thomas Lawson Robinson
who was born in 1885, lived at Daytona Beach, Florida died in
1961, and was married to Florence Hall and Emma Hume who was
born in 1890; Annie Robinson who was married to J. M. Waters
and lived at Alexandria; Eva Robinson who was married to Charles
Hildreth and lived at Alexandria; and a child who died in infancy.
6 Elijah J. Robinson was born 8 August 1840 and died 25 December
1909. He was married on 21 September 1865 in DeKalb County to
Nancy E. Givans who was born 21 January 1842 and died 5
November 1879. They are buried at the Edward Robinson
Cemetery near Dowelltown. In 1870, they were living in the 2nd
District of DeKalb County.

They were the parents of the following
children: Shelah Robinson who was born about 1866 and was
married to Angie McAdoo; Winket Robinson who was born 31
October 1867 and died 29 June 1894 Robert Robinson who was
born In December of 1869 and was married to Nettle Willard;
Lindsey Robinson; and Lassie Robinson who was married to Jacob
Hawkins. Elijah J. Robinson was married secondly to Mell Patrick
and to a third wife who had been married to a Couch.
7 Matilda A. Robinson was born about 1812 and was married to
Sanford Mann who was born about 1839 in Georgia. Their
marriage license was issued in DeKalb County, Tennessee, on 24
October 1865, but no return was made. In 1870, they were living in
the 2nd District of DeKalb County. They later moved to
Minnesota. They were the parents of the following children:
Thomas Mann who was born about 1866; Nola Mann who was
born about 1868; John Mann who was born In February of 1870;
Horace Mann; and Richard Mann.
8 James S. Robinson was born 19 January 1845. He was married in
DeKalb County on 30 April 1871 to Odom who was born 22
August 1855 and died 28 May 1920. They are buried at Smlthville
Town Cemetery. In 1900, they were living In the 20th District of
DeKalb County. They were the parents of the following children:
Oscar Robinson who was born In October of 1874 Robert Robinson
who was born 13 March 1881 and died 23 February 1927;
Car]. Robinson who was born in March of 1886; and Clarence B.
Robinson who was born in June of 1889. According to the 1900
census, James S. Robinson and Samantha (Odom) Robinson were
the parents of eleven children. do not know the names of the
others.
9 Sarah J. Robinson was born about 1847. She was married on 18
October 1866 in March 1889. He is buried at the Edward Robinson
Cemetery near Dowelltown. Her grave is apparently unmarked.
They were living in the 2nd District of DeKalb County
in 1870 and were the parents of Hershel Bass who was born in
August of 1867 and was married about 1890 to Carrie who was
born in March of 1873, Ezekiel Bass who was born about 1869,
and possibly other children whose names I do not know.
10 Margaret Alice Robinson was born 18 February 1849 and died 7
November 1893. She was married in DeKalb County on 19
January 1868 to Dr. John W. Campbell who was born 11 August
1841 and died 7 April 1885. They are buried at the Edward
Robinson Cemetery near Dowelltown. They were living in the 2nd
District of DeKalb County in 1880 and were the parents of the
following six children: an infant son who was born and died on 7
August 1869; Altie E. Campbell who was born about 1871 and
died young; Maggie E. Campbell who was born about 1874 and
died about 1890; Repsie V. Campbell who was born In 1876, died
in 1953, and was married first to Eula Grooms who was born in
1879 and died in 1918; Ara J. Campbell who was born in 1879,
died in 1912, was married to James M. Bradley who was born in
1869, died in 1955, and lived at Liberty; and Dr. Marvin B.
Campbell who was born in 1881, lived at Nashville, and died in
1958.

11 John A. Robinson was born in 1852 and died in 1917. He was
married to Martha E. Hunt on 13 January 1875 in DeKalb County.
They appear to have been the parents of Edward Robinson, Oscar
Robinson Campbell Robinson who was married twice, and Ethel
Robinson who was born in 1881, died in 1954 and was married to
Charlie A. Avant who was born in 1867 and died in 1953. John A.
Robinson was married secondly to Minnie Avant who was born in
1859 and died in 1945. They were the parents of the following
three children: a daughter, "Charrie" Robinson, who was born in
January of 1881; Nonnie Robinson who was born in 1890, died In
1949 and was married to Flint Fuson who was born in 1888 and
died in 1980; and Lee Robinson who was born In February of
1894. In 1900, John A. Robinson was living In the 20th District of
DeKalb County. John and his second wife are buried at Salem
Cemetery In Liberty.

12 Martha Robinson has been listed as a daughter of Edward
Robinson and Margaret (Truitt) Robinson. She apparently died
young and was never married.

(2) Stephen Robinson was born 29 August 1809 and died 28 December 1893. He was
married on 26 October 1832 to Charlotte Hayes who was born 12 December 1812
and died 3 May 1598. They are buried at the Talley Graveyard at Roundtop near
Alexandria in Wilson County. They were living In Wilson County, Tennessee, in
1850 and were the parents of the following ten children:
1 Edward Robinson was born about 1833. He went to Texas.
2 James W. Robinson was born about 1834 and died about 1862-1863. He
was married to Sophia Burke who died in July of 1887. They are buried at
the Talley Graveyard at Roundtop near Alexandria in Wilson County.
They were the parents of two sons--Edward and Stephen. Edward Robinson
was born about 1859, was married o Mary Gatton, and lived at Alexandria.
Rev. Stephen Robinson was born 1 August 1860 and died in 1931. He was
married on 16 August 1883 to Laura Fuson who was born in 1868 and died
in 1 1946 They are buried at Salem Cemetery in Liberty and were the
parents of six sons and five daughters. Rev. Stephen Robinson first united
with the Christian Baptists, then the Methodists, and finally the Baptists in
in 1897. He served as pastor at Cooper’s Chapel, Mt. Pleasant, New Hope,
Sycamore Fork, Prosperity Snow Hill, Dry Creek, Elizabeth Chapel, Cave
Spring, and possibly, other churches in the area.
3 Matilda Robinson was born about 1837. She was married to William
Coleman and moved to Kentucky.
4 Pleasant Hayes Robinson was born about 1838 and died at Nashville on 18
April 1865. He enlisted in the Union Army at Nashville on 13 October
1862 and served in the 10th Regiment of Tennessee Volunteers. He
attained the rank of corporal. He was married to Sarah (Adamson)
Reynolds and had one son, William Rosecrans Robinson, who was born
about 1863, died in May of 1942 and was married to Lucinda Mullinax
who was born in 1860 and died 20 March 1942. He was a merchant at
Auburntown in Cannon County and a member of the Church of Christ.
They are buried at Prosperity Cemetery.
5 John W. Robinson was born in 1841 and died 4 June 1922. He was
married first to Mary Roberts. They were the parents of Thomas Robinson
who was married on 28 January 1897 to Maggie Thompson. John W.
Robinson was married secondly to Polly Tarpley. They were the parents of
the following four children: Andrew Robinson who was married to
Parazetta Mabe; Alice Robinson who was married on 24 November 1895
to Isaac Harvey; Lessie Robinson who was married secondly in August of
1906 to Valta Wooden; and Chester Robinson who was married secondly
to Lela Turner.
6 Leonard Robinson was born 17 January 1843 and died 6 October 1886. He
fought with the Union during the Civil War and served as a private in
Company K of the 10th Tennessee Infantry. Leonard was married about
1868 to Lou Goodner who was born about 1850 and died about 1883 in
DeKalb County. They are buried at Alexandria Eastview Cemetery in
DeKalb County. They were the parents of the following seven children:
Artemus Ward Robinson who was born 28 April 1870 and died in 1878;
William Hays Robinson who was born 15 March 1872, was a merchant at
Auburntown In Cannon County, later moved to Chattanooga and was
associated with H. G. Hill Company, was married first in 1895 to Charity
Estella Fite, and was married secondly on 1 August 1900 to Una Jane
Adams who was born 14 August 1 885 and died 7 June 1942 at
Chattanooga;

 Charles Knight Robinson who was born 26 June 1874 and
died 16 May 1921 at Auburntown, was married to Lillie Catherine Fite
who was born 13 October 1873 and died 18 January 1961 at Chattanooga;
Gustavus Robinson who was born 1 February 1876 and died in 1879;
Cornie E. Robinson who was born 25 March 1878, died 12 August 1906,
and was married to Charles N. Reynolds; Lelia Robinson who was born 6
AprIl i88o, died 17 January 1957 at Tupelo, Mississippi, and was married
to Marvin Turner; and Ida Robinson who was born 10 April 1882, died 19
September 1959 at San Antonio, Texas, and was married on 28 May 1898
to Thomas 3. Adamson who was born 29 March 1 879 and died 20 January
1961 at Portland, Tennessee. The seven children of Leonard Robinson and
Lou (Goodner) Robinson were born in Wilson County, Tennessee.

7 Julia Robins on was born about 1817 and died 31 January 1929. She
was married about 1865 to Francis Turner who was born about 1835 and
died 22 January 1897. They are buried at the Talley Graveyard in Wilson
County. They were the parents of James Turner who was married to Fannie
Jennings, George Turner who was married to “Dee” Reynolds, and Nannie
Turner who was married on 22 December 1895 to Robert Roberts.
8 Mary Elizabeth “Pop” Robinson was born 10 January 1819 and died in
1924 at Portland, Tennessee.
9 Margaret Robinson was born in 1851 and died in 1923. She was married to
George Adamson and lived at Alexandria. She had no children and is
buried at the Talley Graveyard.
10 Jonas Robinson was born about 1853. I have no other information about
him.
(3) Catherine “Kate” Robinson was born 20 June 1811 and died 11 January 1897. She
was married about 1833 to James Turner who was born 28 July 1808 and died 1
January 1889. They are buried at the Talley Graveyard at Roundtop near
Alexandria in Wilson County. They were the parents of the following nine
children:
1 Susan Turner was born about 1834.
2 John Turner was born about 1836.
3 George Turner was born about 1838, lived near Alexandria, and was
married to a Moore. They were the parents of Matilda Turner who was
married to John Wooden, Betty Turner who was married to Henry Wooden
and Sidney Wooden, David Turner, and Cornelius Turner.
4 Anne Turner was born about 1843 and was never married.
5 Sarah Turner was born about 1846.
6 Mary Jane Turner was born about 1848. She was married to B. R. Roberts
and lived at Roundtop near Alexandria in Wilson County. They were the
parents of the following six children: Alice Roberts who was never
married; Robert Roberts who was married on 22 December 1895 to Nannie
Turner; Lillie Roberts who was never married; Susie Roberts who was
married John C. Johnson; Martha “Patsy” Roberts who was married on 14
December 1902 to Baxter Robinson; and Callie Roberts.
7 Matilda Turner was born about 1850 and was never married.
8 Hulda Turner was born about 1852. She was married to “Curl” Jennings
They were the parents of James “Sharp” Jennings, “Coon” Jennings, and
possibly others.
9 Elizabeth Turner was born about I 1854 and was mar ried to a Reeves.
They were the parents of John Reeves, Cassie Reeves, Emma Reeves, and
Mary Reeves.
(4) Nancy Robinson was born about 1813. She was married about 1829 to Jacob
Jennings. They were the parents of the following eight children:
1 William Jennings was born about 1830. He was married to America Allen.
They were the parents of Alice Jennings who was married to Billy Lewis,
Columbus Jennings who was married on 21 July 1895 to Lena Armstrong,
Elma Jennings who was married to George Mullinax, Jesse Jennings who
was never married, Fannie Jennings, Shelah Jennings who was married to
Mary Hayes, and Julia Jennings who was married to Walter Odom.
2 Martha A. Jennings was born about 1832.
3 Tennie Jennings was born about 1834
4 Sarah E. Jennings was born about 1836.
5 James Jennings was born about 1838. He was married to Tennessee
Keaton. They were the parents of the following seven children: T. Cuba
Jennings who was married to Elizabeth Fite and Victoria Ethel Fite; Brilla
Jennings who was married to Ernest Fite; Jennie Jennings who was married
to Olen Rich; Effie Jennings who was born 16 July 1881, was married first
to H. Adolphus “Red Doll” Fite who was born in June of 1861 and died 19
July 1928, and was married secondly to Ernest Fite who was born in 1876;
Marlin Jennings; and Tommy Jennings.
6 “Pony” Jennings was born about 1840. He was married to an Anderson.
They were the parents of Lela Jennings who was married to Andrew
Foutch and Bonnie Jennings who was married to Ervin Owen.
7 Malissa Jennings was born about 1842. She was married to John Reeves.
They were the parents of Clarence Reeves, Herschel “Sash” Reeves, and
Homer Reeves.
8 Wesley Clay Jennings was born 7 October 1844 and died 25 August 1912.
He was married to Mary Ann Coble who was born 19 March 1846 and died
12 August 1928. They are buried at Prosperity Cemetery. They were the
parents of the following six children: Dulaney Jennings who was married
on 10 December 1893 to Anna Walden; Nannie Jennings who was married
to Gus Rich; Lannis Jennings who was married on 23 December 1896 to
Ophelia Hays; Clemmie Jennings who was married to “Fox” Evans;
Hudson Jennings who was married to a Foutch; and Marvin Jennings.
9 Robert Jennings, who was married to Willie Lee, is possibly another child
of Jacob Jennings and Nancy (Robinson) Jennings.
(5) William A. Robinson was born about 1815. He was married to Matilda
Brown. They lived at Fall Creek, Tennessee, and were the parents of
Amziah Robinson and possibly others.
(6) Moses Robinson was born about 1818. He was married on 1 March 1855 in
DeKalb County to Margaret “Peggy” Alexander who was born about 1836.
in 1880, they were living in the 2nd District of DeKalb County. They were
the parents of the following six children:
1 Frank Robinson
2 Thomas Robinson
3 Sallie Robinson was married to Henry George.
They were the parents of James George who was married to Tennie
Allen, Sam George who was married to Mary Bennett, and Thomas
George Robinson.
4 Nancy Robinson
5 George Robinson
6 James Robinson was born about 1871. He was married to a Blythe.
(7) Sarah “Sallie” Robinson was born 22 March 1819 and died 29 January
1894. She was married to Wiley Jennings. They were the parents of the following
six children:
1 Thomas Jennings was married to Cassle Reeves. They were the parents of
Shelah Jennings, Etta Jennings, Hettie Jennings, Lessie Jennings, and Ray
Jennings.
2 Joel Jennings who was never married.
3 A daughter was married to James Hobbs. She did not have any children.
Jane Jennings was married to Bud Anderson. They were the parents of
Albert Anderson, Dossle Anderson, and a daughter. Nannie Jennings was
never married. Margaret Jennings was married to William Tarpley. They
were the parents of Mattie Tarpley who was married to Lee Milligan, Rufus
Tarpley who was married to a Sunnnar, Dona Tarpley who was married to
Dock Barrett, and Minnie Tarpley who was married to Phillip Barrett.
(8) Matilda Robinson was born 12 March 1821 and died 30 December 1876. She was
married on 10 July 1845 to Sterling Brown Prichard who was born 8 December
1820 in Wilson County and died 15 July 1899. They are buried at the Salem
Baptist Church Cemetery in Liberty. In 1850, they were living in the 12th District
of DeKalb County. In 1860, they were living in the 11th District of DeKalb
County. In 1870, they were living in the 2nd District of DeKalb County, and in
1880, he had remarried and was living in the 2nd District of DeKalb County. They
were the parents of the following six children:
1 Christopher Columbus Prichard was born in 1 1846 and died in 1927. He
was married on 12 September 1872 in DeKalb County to Mary A. “Molly”
Hunt. They are buried at Salem Cemetery in Liberty.
2 James W. Prichard was born about 1848. He was probably married in
DeKalb County on 22 September 1870 to Martha Wallace.
3 Thomas J. Prichard was born in November of 1852. He was married first
to Fannie Gwantney and secondly to Ada Robinson, daughter of William
Field Robinson and Martha Frances (Robinson) Robinson whose lives are
given later in this history in the section on Stephen Robinson, Jr. Ada
(Robinson) Prichard was born 10 September 1858 and was married to
Thomas J. Prichard about 1875. They were the parents of the following
eight children: Reginal E. Prichard who was born in June of 1883; Gutheridge
Prichard who was born in August of 1885 Emmett Prichard who was
born in August of 1857; Allison Prichard who was born in July of 1890;
Emon Prichard who was born in August of 1892; Willie Prichard who was
born in August of. 1 1894; Solon L. Prichard who was born in October of
1897; and Garnet H. Prichard who was born in January of 1900. In 1900,
Thomas B. Prichard and Ada (Robinson) Prichard were living in the 20th
District of DeKalb County. At a later date, they moved to Sunset, Texas.
4 Nancy A. Prichard was born 24 December 1853 and died 16 March 1930.
She was married in DeKalb County on 30 March 1871 to William D.
Bass who was born 12 November 1849 and died 18 October 1933. They
are buried at Salem Cemetery In Liberty. In 1880 and 1900, they were
living in the 12th District of DeKalb County. They were the parents of the
following eight children: Mary E. Bass who was born about 1872; Ada L.
Bass who was born about 1874; Melissa A. Bass who was born about
1877; Norah A. Bass who was born about 1878; Eldredge Bass who was
born In November of 1886’ Virce Bass who was born in August of 1890;
Ezekiel Bass who was born in April of 1893; Geneva Bass who was born
in November of 1895; and possibly others.
5 Mary A. Prichard was born about 1857.
6 Jordan Lee Prichard was born about 1864.
7 Elizabeth Prichard who married Bud Fite has been given as a daughter of
Sterling Brown Prichard and Matilda (Robinson) Prichard. However, she
does not appear In any of the census records for their family.
(9) John Robinson was born about 1823. The name of his wife is not known.
John and his wife were the parents of the following three children:
1 James Robinson was married to Jane Alexander. They were the
parents of the following eleven children: Alice Robinson who was
married on 31 July 1889 to George Balnes; Sarah Ann Robinson
who was married to Nat Hickman; John Robinson who was
married to a Vandergriff; Charlie Robinson who was married to a
Williams; Baxter Robinson who was married on 14 December
1902 to Martha “Patsy” Roberts; Della Robinson who was married
to Jim Hobbs and Jim Hays; Dessie Robinson who was married to
Stokes George; “Bud” Robinson who was married in Louisiana;
Remus Robinson who was married to a Dunn; Romulus Robinson
who was married to a Reynolds; and Byrdie Robinson who was
married to Jefferson Robinson, a Saddler, and to a third husband
whose name is not known.
2 Ben Robinson
3 Bettie Robinson
(10) Martha Ann Robinson was born about 1825 and was married to George
Martin. They were the parents of the following two daughters and
possibly others:
1 Matilda Martin
2 Emaline Martin
(11) It has been reported that James Robinson and Elizabeth (Fite) Robinson
were the parents of a daughter who was married to “Spy” Anderson. I do
not know anything about her family or her first name.
4) Stephen Robinson, Jr., son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson was born between 1780 and 1790 in Cumberland County, Virginia, and
died in 1846 near Temperance Hall in Smith County, Tennessee. Stephen
Robinson, Jr., enlisted on 21 November 1812 and served as a private under
Colonel Hall and Captain Kennedy with the Volunteer Infantry in the War of
1812. He was married first about 1812 to Martha Meador, daughter of Jesse and
Martha Meador of Cumberland County, Virginia. The estate of Martha Meador
was settled in Smith County, Tennessee. Stephen Robinson, Jr., and Martha
(Meador) Robinson were the parents of the following daughter:
(1) Elizabeth Johns Robinson was born 14 September 1811 in Smith County,
Tennessee, and died in August of 1879. She was married on 30 May 1832
to Clinton Burke Reynolds who was born 16 November 1813 and died 30
September 1857 in Arkansas. They were the parents of the following ten
children:
1 Lafayette Pitt Reynolds was born 6 March 1834 and died 31 July 1911
at Booneville, Mississippi. He was married on 2 January 1862 to Erma
James Petty who was born 22 September 1833 and died 21 Novem
1907. They were the parents of the following five children: Mary
Jessie Reynolds who was born 5 April 1863, was never married, and
died 29 January 1938; Martha Julia Reynolds who was born 13 April
1865 and died 26 October 1937. She was never married.; Henry
Davenport Reynolds who was born 3 August 1867, died 20 December
1936, was married first on 12 May 1889 to Sarah Arabella Jobe who
was born 8 October 1866 and died 10 May 1928, and was married
secondly to Lillian Glass; Junius Wesley Reynolds who was born 19
July 1871, died 26 November 1942, and was married on 23 August
1896 to Nancy Bell Jobe who was born 8 March 1871; and John
Burke Reynolds who was born 10 October 1872, died 19 January
1952, was married first on 19 July 1900 to Minnie Brimm who died
27 July 1910, and was married secondly to Elizabeth Privett on
27 July 1915.
2 Guilford Guthrldge Reynolds was born 15 May 1836 and died 23
March 1914. He was buried in Mississippi. He was married on 9
August 1855 to Mary Cowan, and they were the parents of the
following twelve children: Tennessee Reynolds who was born 8 June
1856 and died 29 March 1928; Clinton Reynolds who was born 18
June 1859; Guilford M. Reynolds who was born 28 September 1862,
died 28 June 1945, and was married to Dicie Gabbart; Lou Ann
Reynolds who was born 20 November 1864 and was married on 3
March 1895 to James Marion Bynum who was born 19 December
1862 and died 23 August 1944; Paul J. Reynolds who was born 2
September 1866 and was married on 18 March 1896 to Henrietta
Lauderdale who was born 21 October 1873; Sarah Frances Reynolds
who was born 12 January 1861 and died 4 July 1937; Rhapp Reynolds
who was born 17 February 1868; Emma Josephine Reynolds who was
born 3 March 1870, died 30 August 1946, and was married on 24
December 1895 to John B. Whitaker who was born 2 September 1862
and died 22 December 1929; William Pitt Reynolds who was born 8
March 1872 and died 22 July 1872; Edward Carinack Reynolds who
was born 11 September 1873 and died 2 January 1913; Mary Ruth
Reynolds who was born and died 11 March 1874 and Rubel Reynolds
who was born 23 February 1879 and died 7 August 1879.
3 Sarah Louisa Reynolds was born 10 January 1839 and died between
1852 and 1885. She was married on 9 August 1855 or 18 December
1856 to James H. Sherring who died about 1861. They were the
parents of Martha Elizabeth Sherring who was born 25 February 1858
and died 6 January 1913. She was married to Joseph Bailey Gallimore
who was born 14 February 1856 and died 26 November 1938.
4 Lucinda Minerva Reynolds was born 2 April 1841 and died 7 August
1910. She was married on 18 or 23 December 1856 to William H.
Miller. They moved to Texas where he died during the Civil War.
They were the parents of’ the following three children: John Miller
who was born in 1858, died in 1940, and was married to Jennie
Whitfield and Ida Mae Briggs Chaffin; LaFayette Louis Miller who
was born about 1860; and Willam Miller who was born about 1862
and was married to Eula Biggs.
5 Arthur Meador Reynolds was born 29 January or June 1843 and d.
6 July 1930. He was married first on i8 March 1871 to Elizabeth J.
Cole who was born 7 February 1 1842 and died 12 December 1880.
They were the parents of the following five children: Andrew Burke
Reynolds who was born 16 May 1872, died in July of 1 1944, and was
married on 1 March 1893 to Julia Lizzie Dean who was born 13
August 1875; John Guilford Reynolds who was born 25 May 1 1874
and died 10 June 1 1944. He was married on 3 November 1895 to
Emma Walker who was born 3 November 1875 and died 31
December1907 and was married secondly on 3 March 1909 to
Annie Lindsley who was born 19 June 1887; William Isaac
Henderson Reynolds who was born 14 January 1876, was married
first on 7 February 1900 to Nellie Ferguson who was born 6 March
1880 and died 3 June 1935; and was married secondly on 1 July
1939 to Mrs. Alice Leaverton who was born 23 November 1889;
George Arthur L. Reynolds who was born 25 November 1877, died
12 November 1940, and was married to Ella Harp who was born 1
October 1881; and James Reynolds who was born 31 October 1880
and died 6 December 1880. Arthur Meador Reynolds was married
secondly on 25 March 1881 to Sue B. Walker who was born 2
September 1 1842 and died 21 January 1 920. They were the parents
of the following two children: Clinton Combs Reynolds who was
born 25 May 1882, died 10 November 1925, and was married on 25
December 1899 to Julia Brown; arid Albert Sidney 3. Reynolds who
was born 20 February 1885 and was married 21 December 1902 to
Harriet Lou Yocum who was born 6 February 1885. Arthur Meador
Reynolds was married thirdly to a Mrs. Houston.
6 Luther James John Reynolds was born 24 July 1 1845 and died
about 1864. He was held prisoner by the North during the Civil War
and died from the measles.
7 Bluford Clinton Reynolds was born 18 January 1848.
8 Josiah Robinson Reynolds was born 21 September 1850 and died 18
May 1929. He was married on 2 February 1876 to Josephine Chastain
who was born 24 October 1855 and died 11 December 1929. They
were the parents of’ the following six ehildren: Luther Chastain
Reynolds who was born 21 November 1877 and was married on 8
June 1901 to Pauline Kendrick who was born 11 August 1878; Lucien
Erskine Reynolds who was born 17 February 1880 and was married
on 30 June 1903 to Mattie Katherine Harp who was born 16 October
1885; Ellac Earl Reynolds who was born 4 March 1883 and was
married on 17 June 1905 to Clara Pearl Nelson who was born 16
February 1885; Ona Reynolds who was born 24 December 1855 and
was married on 21 December 1905 to Miles Jasper Wilhoit who was
born 27 April 1882 and died in March of 1936; Herman LaFayette
Reynolds who was born 19 December 1 891 and was married on 5
March 1916 to Clementine O’Bannon who was born 3 December
1897; and Jordan Reynolds who was born 25 December 1 895 and
was married on 16 August 1925 to Gaynelle Bradley who was born 6
September 1891.
9 Martha Frances Reynolds was born 29 May 1853 and died in 1873 or
1878. She was never married.
10 John Exum Reynolds was born 19 October 1856 and died in 1925. He was
married to Mary Robinson who died in 1940-1941. They were the parents
of nine children including the seven which follow: Ethel Reynolds who
was married to George Simms; LaFayette Pitt Reynolds who was married
to Josephine Arnold and a Forrester; Elizabeth Reynolds who was married
to John Bynum who was born 5 December 1872 and died in 1947; Velma
Reynolds who was married to Robert Forrester; Annie Reynolds who was
married to James Johnson; Willard Reynolds who was married to
Hendrick Draper and a Wilbanks; and Lorena Reynolds who was married
to Morris Hopkins.
Stephen Robinson, Jr., was married secondly to Mary Lancaster, daughter of William
Allen Lancaster and Judith (Lancaster) Lancaster. Mary (Lancaster) Robinson was born 6
June 1798 and died about 1846 in Smith County, Tennessee, near Temperance Hall. The
will of Stephen Robinson, Jr., was dated 13 January 1846 and recorded 20 September
1846 in Smith County, Tennessee. It appears that Stephen Robinson, Jr., and Mary
(Lancaster) Robinson lived on Walker’s Creek. They were the parents of the following
six children:
(2) Mariah Holland Robinson was born 23 August 1818 and died 18 November 1 905
in Wilson County, Tennessee. She was married on 5 October 181+8 to John
Pinkney Patterson who was born 24 December 1810 and died 28 September 1889.
They were the parents of the following four children:
1 Mary Augusta Patterson was born 16 January 1850.
She was married on 18 September 1872 to R. S.
Bennett. They were the parents of the following
seven children: Eugene Bennett; Daisy Bennett;
Minnie Bennett; Anna Bennett; John Bennett;
Robert Hugh Bennett; and Mamie Lula Bennett
2 Margarett Frances Patterson was born 10 November 1852. and died 9 June
1852.
3 Andrew Johnson Patterson was born 15 July 1853 and died 22 October
1936. He was married first on 13 October 1881 to Myra Hearn. They were
the parents of a daughter1 Mary Blakie Patterson, who was born 20 May
1582. Andrew Johnson Patterson was married secondly to Cidie Robert
Phillips on 25 September 1 1884. They were the parents of the following
six children: Sam Jones Patterson who was born 15 July 1885; Leanda
Patterson who was born 18 March 1888; twins who died in infancy;
Myrtle Patterson who was born 24 July 1893; and Bessie Carol Patterson
who was born 30 September 1896.
3 Franklin Pierce Patterson was born 28 September1855 and was married on
24 September 1884 to Betty 0. Ragland. They were the parents of the
following two children: Frank Owen Patterson who was born 10 June
1886 and was married to Lillie Richardson; and Fannie Patterson who was
married to Frank Stovall.
The information contained in this section was taken from the family Bible owned
by S. J. Patterson of Lebanon, Tennessee.
(3) Dr. Guthridge Lancaster Robinson was born 8 October 1821 in Smith County near
the present site of Temperance Hall and died in 1899 at Lebanon in Wilson
County, Tennessee. In 1850, he was a doctor at Alexandria and was living with
John S. Rice, an innkeeper. Dr. Guthridge Lancaster Robinson was married in
DeKalb County on 6 September 1851 to Emily D. Anderson who was born about
1817 in Tennessee. They were the parents of the following son:
1 Churchwell Lancaster Robinson was born 14 July 1852 and died at about twenty
years of age.
Dr. G. L. Robinson moved to Lebanon to practice medicine. Re was married
secondly to Valeria Huddleston. They did not have any children.
(4) Isabella F. Robinson was born about 1822 in Smith County, probably on
Walker’s Creek, and died before 1880 on Walker’s Creek in DeKalb County,
Tennessee. She was married to Thomas Driver, son of Daniel Driver and Sarah
“Sallie” (Fisher) Driver. Thomas Driver was born about 1818 on Walker’s Creek
and died there before 1900. He was a merchant and justice of the peace. Thomas
Driver and Isabella F. (Robinson) Driver were the parents of the following six
children who were all born on Walker’s Creek:
1 Lycurgus Driver was born I 14 November 1 1845 and died 13 January
1915 at Temperance Hall. Lycurgus was married first on 6 November
1873 to Tennessee Stokes daughter of John Thomas Stokes and Kizziah
(Petty) Stokes. Tennessee was born 2 May 1853 and died 8 December
1882. They were the parents of the following four daughters: Cleo Driver
who was born 3 September 1874 died 2 August 1960, and was married on
19 March 1905 to Dock Harrison Tramel; Maggie Driver who was born 13
March 1876 was never married, and died 214 July 1946; Era Dr -ver who
was born 12 July 1879, died 1 14. October 1955, and was married on 15
April 1904 to Sidney Brooks Winfrey; and Myrtle Driver who was born
21 March 1881 and died 24 April 1883. There is much more information
on Lycurgus Driver and his first family in the history of the Stokes family.
Lycurgus Driver was married secondly on 17 January 1884 in DeKalb
County to Mary Eliza Robinson, daughter of Dr. William B. Robinson and
Elizabeth Paralee (Reynolds) Robinson. Mary was born 17 August 1858 at
Temperance Hall and died 23 February 1933 at Temperance Hall.
Lycurgus and Mary Eliza (Robinson) Driver were the parents of two sons.
William Lycurgus Driver, the eldest, was born 5 July 1885 at Temperance
Hall and died 28 November 1964 at Madera, California. He did not have
any children. Thomas Edgar Driver, the youngest son of Lycurgus and
Mary, was known as “Tommy” or “Ed.” He was born 21 October 1890 at
Temperance Hall and died 3 March 1956 at Lebanon in Wilson County.
He was married first in March of 1931 to Beatrice Barton who was born 2
November 1914 and died 13 April 1933. They did not have any children.
She is buried at the Tubb’s Cemetery at Temperance Hall. Thomas E.
Driver was married secondly on 27 July 1939 at Glasgow, Kentucky, to
Willie (Bates) Bunch who was born in 1914 and lives at Gordonsvllle in
Smith County. They were the parents of Beverly Ann Driver who was
born 17 February 1950. Beverly was married on 23 October 1968 to
Darrell Houchins. They have a son, Shawn Stephen Houchins and live
near Chattanooga, Tennessee. Thomas E. Driver represented DeKalb
County in the state legislature, as a Democrat, from 1925 to 1929. He was
a justice of the peace for about thirty years and was a teacher of the adult
Sunday school class at the Temperance Hall Methodist Church. He is
buried at Gordonsville Cemetery in Smith County. His widow, Willie, was
later married to Jim Wilson Midgett who was born about 1913, died 15
April 1983, and is buried at Gordonsville Cemetery. Jim W. Midgett was a
son of Thomas Jefferson Midgett and Eva (Corley) Midgett and was a
native of Temperance Hall.
2 William Worthington Driver was born about 1847 and died 15 March 1901
near Alexandria In Smith County, Tennessee. He was known as “Worth”
and was married in Smith County on 10 October 1872 by William Nixon,
J. P., to Roxie Ann Manners. She was born about 1855 and died in Smith
County on 11 March 1910. They were the parents of the following nine
children: Minnie B. Driver who was born 28 July 1873, died 29 January 1
1940, and was married to John Newbell; Timothy A. “Toash” Driver who
was born 10 January 1875, died 27 January 1946, and was married to
Minnie Bell Hunt who was born 19 August 1883 and died 12 November
1929; Thomas J. Driver who was born in 1877, died In 1957, and was
married to Annie Duncan who was born in 1886 and died 25 June 1 965 in
Smith County; Mary Ever Driver who was born in 1879, and was married
to John Brown; Bart Driver who was born 26 March 1882, died 19
November 1949, and was married to Willie Ada Newbell who was born
24 June 1884 and died 1 August 1944 Frauda Driver who was born in
1885, died 15 September 1968, and was married to Tom Courtney and Joe
Owens; Hattie L. Driver who was born in 1889, died 7 April 1969, and
was married to Jasper T. Helmontaller who was born in 1886 and died in
1960; Bob Driver who died when he was a child; and Fed
W. Driver who was born in 1892 and died, unmarried, in 1960. Many of
the children of William Worthington Driver and Roxie Ann (Manners)
Driver are buried at Union Hill Cumberland Presbyterian Church near
Sykes in Smith County. Some of the information in this section was given
to me by Charlie Campbell Driver, son of Timothy A. “Toash” Driver
and Minnie Bell (Hunt) Driver.
3 Daniel Demonstronee “D. “ Driver was born 5 September 1852 and died
10 March 1930 at Temperance Hall. It appears from the census records
that the year of his birth must have been 1849 instead of 1852 which
appears on his tombstone. D. D. Driver was married in DeKalb County on
9 August 1897 to Kizzle Frances Powell, daughter of Pleasant Lee Powell
and Martha Jane (Stokes) Powell. Lizzie was born 20 April 1860 at
Temperance Hall and died 11 April 1936 at Temperance Hall. They are
buried at Salem Cemetery in Liberty. They were the parents of the
following nine children who were all born at Temperance Hall: Daisy B.
Driver who was born 3 August 1878, died 26 January 1955, and was
married to Reuben W. Tubb and James William Mason an infant daughter
who was born 10 September 1 1880 and died in September of 1880; Clara
Driver who was born 16 December 1881, died 16 March 1961, and was
married to Wylie W. Nixon; Ernest “Bud” Driver who died 21 March
1945 and was married to Lydia Wauford and Allie Willoughby; Lela
Moore Driver who was born 26 August 1886, died 20 February 1952, and
was married to Alvin Rose on 25 December 1902; Elsie Driver who was
born 24 February 1890, died 7 November 1963, and was married to
Hinson Avant; an infant son who was born 17 December 1891 and died
19 December 1891; Jim Bob Driver who was born 1 July 1896, died 11
September 1958, and was married to Audrea Malone; and Dixie D. Driver
who was born 5 August 1899, died 17 October 1976, and was married on
18 June 1922 to Pauline Oakley. More information about Daniel
Demonstronee Driver and his family can be found in the history of the
Stokes family.
4 Mary W. Driver was born 14 April 1851 and died 6 July 1907. She was
married on 8 October 1891 in DeKalb County to Dr. Christopher
Columbus “Lum” Robinson, son of Alexander Hamilton Robinson, Sr.,
and Rachel Forrester (Barnes) Robinson. Dr. “Lum” Robinson was born
11 October 1816 and died 10 August 1904, Mary was his second wife, and
they lived at Dowelltown. They are buried at the Edward Robinson
Cemetery near Dowelltown. They were the parents of a daughter, Lola
Robinson, who was born 7 February 1894 and died 25 June 1937. She was
married to John Medlin. They were the parents of two sons, Odell Medlin
who was married on 6 August 1948 to Irene Bratten Cantrell, and John
Medlin, Jr. Lola is buried at Salem Cemetery in Liberty.
5 Gutbridge R. (Robert or Robinson) Driver was born about 1855. He was
never married and died after 1880. He is buried at the family cemetery on
Walker’s Creek now known as the Gragson Cemetery. His grave is
unmarked.
6 Sarah "Sallie" Driver was born on 28 July 1861 and died at Dowelltown
on 20 November 1938. She was married about 1887 to James B. “Jim”
Williams who was born 11 January 1860 and died 13 May 1937. “Sallie”
lived with her father and took care of him. Her niece, Cleo (Driver)
Tramel, lived with her for several years. After 1900 James and Sa].lie left
Walker’s Creek and move to Dowelltown where they remained until their
deaths. They were the parents of the following four children: C. B. “Bud”
Williams who was born in October of 1888, was married to Callie Evans
and Bonnie Smith, and died 25 April 1959; Homer Williams who was
born 24 October 1891 and died 6 March 1907; Herbert Williams who was
born 4 March 1898, died 23 June 1928, and was married to Eula Bates
who was born 21 July 1897 and died 7 January 1973; and May Nell
Williams who was born 1 June 1901 and died 14 January 1905. Jim and
Sallie, Herbert and Eula, are buried at Salem Cemetery in Liberty. Homer
and May Nell are buried at the Edward Robinson Cemetery near
Dowelltown.
Thomas Driver and Isabella F. (Robinson) Driver are buried at the family cemetery on
Walker’s Creek now known as the Gragson Cemetery. Their graves are unmarked.
(5) Manerva A. Robinson was born about 1827. In 1860 she was living in the 17th
District of DeKalb County In the home of Ishmael Gregston and was listed as an
“Old Maid.” Manerva was married on 9 January 1868 in DeKalb County to
William Prichard who was born in March of 1817 and died after 1900. Manerva
was his second wife and did not have any children. She died before 1900. They
were living in the 16th District of DeKalb County in 1870 and 1880. In 1900, he
was still living in the 16th District.
(6) Sophronia Robinson was born about 1831. In 1850, she was living in the home of
her brother-in-law and sister, Thomas and Isabella Driver, on Walker’ Creek in
Smith County. Sophronia was married in Smith County on 30 December 1858 by
H. H. Sullivan, a Methodist minister, to Richard Corley who was born about
1836. They were living in the 17th District of DeKalb County in 1860 and did not
have any children. Sophronia died from exposure after riding horseback all day in
the rain.
(7) Martha Frances Robinson was born 7 July 1832 and died 28 October 1909. She
was married In DeKalb County on 9 September 1855 to William Field Robinson,
son of Alexander Hamilton Robinson, Sr. and Rachel Forrester Barnes) Robinson.
William Field Robinson was born 23 January 1829 and died 3 August 1882 in
DeKalb County. They lived near Dowelltown in DeKalb County. William Field
Robinson was a farmer and school teacher and fought with the Union during the
Civil War. William Field Robinson and Martha Frances (Robinson) Robinson
were the parents of the following eight children:
1 John Headly Robinson was born 4 September 1856 and died 8 August
1863.
2 Ada Robinson was born 10 September 1858. She was married to Thomas. B.
Prichard, son of Sterling Brown Prichard and Matilda (Robinson) Prichard.
Ada was the second wife of Thomas B. Prichard who was born in November
of 1852. They were married about 1875 and were living in the 20th District of
DeKalb County in 1900. They later moved to Sunset, Texas. The names of
their eight children are given In the section of this Robinson history which
gives the descendants of Sterling Brown Prichard and Matilda (Robinson)
Prichard.
3 Ralph Emerson Robinson was born 1 14 January 1861 and died 20 March
1943 at Chattanooga. He was married on 28 August 1890 to Elsie Potts
Lowrey who was born 19 February 1872 and died 11 October 1921. Ralph was
a lawyer and first practiced law with his uncle John B. Robinson, at Smithville.
In 1892, Ralph established a law office at Sparta. In 1894, he became a
lawyer for Neidringhaus Brothers at Crossville. In 1911, he began a law
practice in Van Buren and Grundy Counties. In 1918, he went into business
with his sons in Coffee County and later moved to Chattanooga. After the
death of his wife in 1921, Ralph moved to West Palm Beach, Florida. He
retired in 1926. His health declined, and he was later an invalid. He died at the
home of a daughter in Chattanooga. Ralph Emerson Robinson and Elsie Potts
(Lowrey) Robinson are buried at Highland Cemetery at Sparta in White
County, Tennessee. The family were all members of the Church of Christ.
They were the parents of the following eight children: Ralph Emer son
Robinson Jr. who was born 19 November 1891 at Smithville and was married
18 June 1940 to Sophia Lodema Wallace who was born 30 September 1916 in
White County; Guthridge Lowrey Robinson who was born 26 June or
September 1893 at Sparta, died 30 June 1931 at West Palm Beach, Florida,
and was married on 26 October 1916 to Amanda Rowena Dibrell who was
born 28 May 1892; Esmerelda Robinson who was born 11 June 1595 at
Crossville, was married on 8 May 1919 at Sparta to Quentin Miller Smith, Sr.,
who was born 11 Nay 1891, and was divorced in 1937; Thomas William
Robinson who was born 9 March 1597 at Crossville and was married on 17
February 1929 at West Palm Beach, Florida, to Mary Monroe who was born
13 September 1898; Frank Holmes Robinson who was born 3 December 1899
and was never married; Margarett Kathleen Robinson who was born 30
October 1901 at Sparta and was married 114 December 1922 to Thomas
Willingham who was born 29 November 1598; Helen Frances Robinson who
was born 30 May 1901 at Sparta and was married on 5 July 1923 at
Chattanooga to William Beatty Greever who was born 13 April 1900 in
Hamilton County, Tennessee, and died 16 February 1947 at Chattanooga from
a heart attack; and James Watson McClure Rob son who was born 3 April
1910 at Sparta and was married on 5 April 1947 to Frances Evelyn Jack of
West Liberty, Iowa, who was born 15 April 1914.
Much of the information contained in this history of the Robinson family came from
Esmerelda (Robinson) Smith, daughter of Ralph Emerson Robinson, Sr., and Elsie (Potts)
Lovrey Robinson. In the 1960's, I would go to her apartment near the Vanderbilt campus
in Nashville and spend my Saturdays copying information from her records about the
Robinson family. She had accumulated information on the Robinson family history for
many years.
4 Exerifa Robinson was born 29 October 1864 and died near
Winchester in Franklin County, Tennessee. She was married to
Columbus E. Bratten who died 30 March 1895. They were the
parents of Elsie Bratten and John Headly Bratten who was married
to Alice Patton.
5 Idella Robinson was born 28 March 1867 and died16 June 1932.
She was married on 22 April 1911 to Lemuel Stockwell who was
born 9 November 1864. They lived near Winchester in Franklin
County, Tennessee.
6 Solon Lancaster Robinson was born 30 October 1869 and died 3
March 1964. He was married to Ethelyn Cartwright of Pikeville,
Tennessee, who was born 23 July 1877 and died 16 March 1958.
7 Pearl Wood Robinson was born 3 January 1873 and died 29
October 1876.
8 Jeromette Robinson was born 16 September 1876 and was
married to Avant Cantreil.
5) Jenny Robinson, daughter of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born in Cumberland County, Virginia. She died prior to 1828, as
she was deceased at the time her father made his will. She was married to a
Williams and was the mother of the following six children:
(1) Christopher Williams
(2) Isaac Williams
(3) James Williams
04) Lucy Williams
(5) Betsy Williams
(6) Jane Williams
I have no other information about them.
6) Edward Robinson, son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth
(Holland) Robinson, was born in Cumberland County, Virginia.
He was a captain at the Battle of New Orleans in the War of
1812 and was killed in battle. His wife’s name was Elizabeth.
They were the parents of the following two sons:
(1) Christopher C. Robinson was born about 1808.
(2) Stephen Robinson was born about 1810.
These two sons of Edward Robinson are mentioned in their grandfather’s will in
1828. The Smith County court records from 1820 to 1822 reveal some of the
problems which Elizabeth Robinson faced after the death of her husband Edward.
During that time, Elizabeth Robinson, guardian of Christopher and Stephen
Robinson, infant heirs of Edward Robinson, deceased, stated that she had
insufficient money for her expenses and was permitted to sell thirty acres of land
which belonged to the estate. This land was in Smith County on Smith Fork
Creek at the mouth of Dismal Creek and joined the lands of George Baysinger.
Reuben Higginbotham, John Oven, and William Mart were appointed to
administer the estate of Edward Robinson. In November of 1820, Elizabeth
Robinson was appointed guardian to Christopher and Stephen Robinson. Reuben
Higginbotham and George Robinson were securities for $700.00. Jacob Fite, John
Gordon, and William McLane were appointed commissioners to set apart for
Elizabeth Robinson one year’s maintenance out of the provisions of Edward
Robinson, deceased. The sheriff was ordered to summon twelve free—holders
who were unconnected with Elizabeth Robinson to ascertain her idiocy or lunacy
and report to the next court. The jury reported that after examining Elizabeth
Robinson they thought her incapable of transacting or taking care of herself or her
property. It was reported that she had in her possession the following property:
one negro woman about 35 years old, one negro boy named William who was
about six years old, one negro girl named Lydia who was about four years old, a
girl Betsey who was about six-months old, one bed and furniture, 2 spinning
wheels, 3 chairs, one pot, one skillet, 2 stands, one tub, 2 pails, 2 piggins, and one
table. I do not know what became of Elizabeth Robinson, widow of Edward
Robinson, and her two sons, Christopher C. Robinson and Stephen Robinson. The
will of their grandfather, Stephen Robinson, Sr., does reveal a partiality on his
part for his grandson, Christopher C. Robinson. It seems quite likely that
Christopher might have stayed with his grandfather while his brother, Stephen,
might have lived with his mother or with her people.
7) Sallie Robinson, daughter of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born in Cumberland County, Virginia. She was alive when her
father’s will was written in 1828. However she was named in his will as Sallie
Robinson, not Sallie Simpson. From other records, it is revealed that Sallie
Robinson was married to James Simpson. Apparently, James Simpson had died
by 1822. In 1822, Sallie’s brother, Augustin Robinson, was appointed guardian to
Thomas, John, and Agnes Simpson, children of his sister, Sallie. Little B. Hughes,
Robert Williams, Moses Robinson, George Robinson Archer Robinson, and
James Mills were his securities in the sum of $1,000.00. From this, it is revealed
that James Simpson and Sallie (Robinson) Simpson were the parents of the
following three children:
(1) Thomas Simpson
(2) John Simpson
(3) Agnes Simpson
8) Augustin Robinson, son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born about 179’4 in Cumberland County, Virginia, and died after
1850, probably in Mississippi. His wife, Rachel, was born about 1799 in
Kentucky. Augustin Robinson was living in Smith County, Tennessee, in 1820
and 1830. According to the will of his father, Stephen in 1828, Augustin
Robinson lived on Hickman’s Creek. In 1856, Augustin Robinson was living in
Franklin County, Mississippi. According to this census record, Augustin
Robinson and Rachel, his wife, were the parents of the following seven children:
(1) Letecia Robinson was born about 1820 in Tennessee.
(2) Mary Robinson was born about 1826 in Tennessee.
(3) Josiah Robinson was born about 1827 or 1828 in Tennessee.
(4) Elizabeth Robinson was born about 1829 in Tennessee.
(5) John Robinson was born about 1830 in Tennessee.
(6) Louisa Robinson was born about 1832 in Tennessee.
(7) Martha Ann Robinson was born about 1835.
9) Nancy Robinson, daughter of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born in Cumberland County, Virginia, and died prior to 1828
when her father’s will was written. In this will, she is listed as “Nancy Bostick.”
No trace has been found of her husband and children. There were no Bosticks
listed in the 1830 census for Smith County. However, there were several Bostick
families living in Williamson County, Tennessee, at that time. According to her
father’s will, Nancy (Robinson) Bostick was the mother of the following four
children:
(1) Jane Bostick
(2) Betsy Bostick
(3) John Bostick
(3) Polly Ann Bostick
10) John Robinson son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland) Robinson,
was born near Nashville, Tennessee, on 27 January 1798. While an infant, he was
brought to Smith County, Tennessee, near the present location of Temperance
Hall, where he remained until his death on 16 October 1877. John Robinson was
married to Eliza J. Harris who was born in Virginia on 12 January 1802 and died
at Temperance Hall in DeKalb County, Tennessee, on 21 January 1881. They are
buried at the Tubb’s Cemetery at Temperance Hall. In 1850, 1860, and 1870, they
were living in the 15th District of DeKalb County. Following the death of her
husband, Eliza, according to the 1880 census, lived with her grandson, Charlie
Robinson, in the 15th District of DeKalb County. John Robinson and Eliza 3.
(Harris) Robinson were the parents of the following seven children who were all
born at Temperance Hall:
(1) Alexander Robinson was married in 1840 to Sarah Louise Reynolds and
died in 1848. I do not have any information on his family.
(2) Dr. Archibald M. "Archie" Robinson was born about 1825 and died before
1859. He was married on 23 May 1849 in Smith County, Tennessee, to
Mary Jane Smith, daughter of Nicholas Smith and Sarati,. (Compton)
Smith. Mary was born 17 December 1827 and was married in DeKalb
County on 1 March 1859 to Dr. A. S. Redman. Dr. “Archie” Robinson, her
first husband, was a physician at Temperance Hall. They were the parents
of the following two sons:
1 Dr. William Henry Robinson was born 26 November 1850 at
Temperance Hall and died 30 July 1904 at Liberty. He was married
in DeKalb County on 8 January 1878 to Alice B.Stark who was
born 5 February 1861 and died 15 March 1938. They are buried at
Cemetery in Liberty. In 1870, he was living in the home of his
step-father, Dr. Augusta Redman, in the 2nd District of DeKalb
County. Dr. and Alice B. (Stark) Robinson were living in the 2nd
District of DeKalb County in i88o and 1900. They were the parents
of the following ten children who were all born at Liberty in
DeKalb County; Lola Robinson who was born in October of 1879;
Walton Robinson who was born in March of 1881; James
Robinson who apparently died young; Oscar Robin-son who was
born in May of 1884 Frank Robinson who was born in February of
1886 and was married to Minnie Smith; May Robinson who was
born in July of 1888; William Robinson who was born in
October of 1890; Eva Robinson who was born in May of 1892;
Nellie Robinson who was born in February of 1894; and Samuel
Robinson who was born in January of 1896.
2 Charlie Robinson apparently died young. He was not living with
his mother in 1870.
(3) Dr. William B. Robinson was born 28 July 1828 and died 7 November 1884 at
Temperance Hall. Dr. “Bill” Robinson was married in DeKalb County on 8
February 1856 to Elizabeth Paralee Reynolds, daughter of Peter Reynolds and
Matilda (Strother) Reynolds. Elizabeth was born 15 January 1834 and died 13
January 1892 at Temperance Hall. In 1850, William B. Robinson was a medical
student at Alexandria and was staying at the inn operated by John S. Rice.
Following the death of his brother, Dr. “Archie” Robinson, Dr. “Bill” Robinson
became a physician at Temperance Hall. He was living in the 15th District of
DeKalb County in 1860, 1870, and 1880. Dr. William B. Robinson and Elizabeth
Paralee (Reynolds) Robinson were the parents of the following ten children:
1 Millard Fillmore Robinson was born 22 January 1857 and died 26 August
1857.
2 Mary Eliza Robinson was born 17 August 1858 and died 23 February 1933
at Temperance Hall in the house where James Lee Bennett now lives. Mary
was married on 17 January 1884 in DeKalb County to Lycurgus Driver,
son of Thomas Driver and Isabella F. (Robinson) Driver. Lycurgus and
Mary were third cousins. Their grandfathers, Stephen Robinson, Jr., and
John Robinson, were brothers. Lycurgus and Mary, as has already been
mentioned earlier in this history of the Robinson family and in the history
of the Stokes family, were the parents of the following two sons: William
Lycurgus Driver who was known as “Willie,” was born 5 July 1885 at
Temperance Hall, and died, unmarried at Madera, California, on 28
November 1964 and Thomas Edgar Driver who was known as “Tommy”
or “Ed,” was born 21 October 1890 at Temperance Hall, died 3 March
1956 at Lebanon, and was married to Beatrice Barton and Willie (Bates)
Bunch.
3 Amanda Matilda Robinson was born 15 August 1860 and died, unmarried,
on Sunday, 20 October 1940 at 10 a.m. In 1900, she was living in the home
of Lycurgus Driver and Mary Eliza (Robinson) Driver, her brother-in-law
and sister.
4 William Alonzo “Lon” Robinson was born 26 September 1862 and died on
Monday, 20 November 1939 at 8:30 a.m. He was married about 1891 to
Dicie Bussell who was born in January of 1871. In 1900, they were living
in the 15th District of DeKalb County. They were the parents of the
following six children: Lola Paralee Robinson who was born in December
of 1892 and was married to Wilson Malone and Strud Judkins. Her son,
Paul Malone, and his wife, Clara (Oliver) Malone, live at the home of
Paul’s great-grandfather, Dr. William B. Robinson, at Temperance Hall.
This is the house where Walter and Frankie (Gragson) Mason lived for
many years. Clara (Oliver) Malone gave me information on the family of
William Alonzo Robin-son over the telephone.; Willie Robinson who was
born In February of 1895, was married to Elsie Johnson, and lived on
Walker’s Creek; Beulah Robinson who was born In Texas in January of
1898, was never married, and lived In the house behind the Methodist
Church at Temperance Hall; Johnny Robinson who was married to Gladys
Dedman and lived near Temperance Hall; Hazel Robinson who was married
to Carter White, has a son Garner, and lives in Davidson County; and
Allie Myrtle Robinson who was born 22 August 1903, was married to
Willie Ryan Starnes on 6 April 192k, and lives at Lebanon. More
information on her family is given in the history of the Stokes family.
William Alonzo Robin son and Dicie (Bussell) Robinson left the
Temperance Hall area in the late 1800’s and went to Texas, but they soon
returned to Tennessee.
5 One child was still-born in October of 1864.
6 Caledonia Waltes “Callie” Robinson was born 12 August 1866 and
died 8 August 1911. In 1900, she was living on Long Branch in the home
of Doss B. Starnes and Etta (Robinson) Starnes, her brother-in-law and
sister. “Callie” was married in August of 1903 to Ferrel Starnes who was
born 3 February 1860 and died in January of 1910. They were the parents
of two daughters, Sweetie and Popie. The eldest daughter, Sweetie
Starnes, was born 26 April 1904 In Dekalb County' and lives at Lancaster
in Smith County. She was married on 1 November 1936 to Gladys Carter,
son o aude C. Carter and Alta (Mitchell) Carter. Gladys Carter was born 2
November 1907 and died 19 January 1973. They were the parents of who
was born 10 September 1938 in Smith County and Mary Carolyn Carter
who was born 15 November 1939 in Smith County. Popie Starnes, the
youngest daughter of Ferrel Starnes and “Callie” (Robinson) Starnes, was
born 25 September 1905 in DeKalb County and lives at Temperance Hall.
She was married on 25 September 1932 to John Hickman Oliver who was
born 25 June 1878 and died 24 December 1 1949. She was his second
wife. They were the parents of Perry Ferrell Oliver who was born 7 July
1933 Callie Sue Oliver who was born 7 November 1943 and died 1
January 1 and Jerry Donald Oliver who was born 20 December 1945.
Their three children were born in DeKalb County.
On 2 February 1969, I visited in the home of Popie (Starnes) Oliver. Much
of the information which is found in this section on Dr. William B.
Robinson was given to me at that time from the W. B. Robinson Bible
which she permitted me to copy.
7 Peter Cicero Robinson was born 11 April 1869 and died 19
September 1878.
8 John Robinson was born 19 August 1871 and died 17 July 1872.
9 Essa Newton Robinson was born 15 July 1874 and died
20 September 1874.
10 Henry Etta Robinson was born 26 December 1876 and died in
California. She was married about 1894 to Doss B. Starnes who was
born in September of 1876. In 1900, they were living on Long
Branch in the 15th District of DeKalb County. They were the par
ents of Lilla Starnes who was born in May of 1896, John Henry
Starnes who was born 5 August 1903 and died 14 September 1
1941, and possibly other children whose names I do not know.
(4) Ann Robinson was married to Judge Jack Williams. I cannot find any
information about them. They do not appear in any of the records which I
have searched.
(5) John Elbert Robinson was born 31 October 1832 and died 25 March 1894.
He was married on 14 December 1854 in DeKalb County to Margaret B.
Smith, daughter of Nicholas Smith and Sarah (Compton) Smith. Margaret
was born 8 November 1831 and died 9 February 1895. They are buried at
the Tubb's Cemetery at Temperance Hall. They were living in 15th
District of DeKalb County in 1860, 1870, and 1880. At the time of his
marriage, John E. Robinson was in such financial condition that he had to
borrow the money to purchase a marriage license. According to an account
of his life in Goodspeed’s history, he farmed on rented land but finally
purchased and owned considerable property which was mostly destroyed
during the Civil War except for a house and lot near Temperance Hall.
Following the war, an inheritance from his wife enabled him to increase
his holding to 254 acres. He was a trustee of the Temperance Hall
Methodist Episcopal Church South and served as superintendent of the
Sunday school. He was formerly a Whig, but after the Civil War, he
became a Democrat. John E. Robinson and Margaret E. (Smith) Robinson
were the parents of the following nine children who were all born near
Temperance Hall:
1 Charles E. "Charlie" Robinson was born about 1855. He was married in
Smith County on 17October 1877 by William Nixon, J. P., to Sarah
Hardcastle who was born about 1858. They were living in the 15th
District of DeKalb County in 1850, and his grandmother, Eliza J.
(Harris) Robinson, was living with them. They were the parents of
Shelah Robinson who was born in 1878, Bertie Robinson who was born
in February of 1880, Robert Robinson, and possibly others.
2 Lilia Dale Robinson was born in September of 1858 and died 16 August
1859. She is buried at the Tubb’s Cemetery at Temperance Hail.
3 John Morgan Robinson was born in September of 1860. He was married
in 1889 to Edna Powell, daughter of Pleasant Lee Powell and Martha
Jane (Stokes) Powell. Edna was born in June of 1866 and died 9
November 1941. They were the parents of the following five children:
Mamie Robinson who born 26 November 1891, died 28 March 1958,
and was married to Horace Sneed Taylor; Baxter Robinson who was
born about 1895, died 13 August 1969, and was married to Elizabeth
Wilkerson; Hugh L. Robinson who was born about 1896; Myrtle
Robinson who was born in February of 1900, died 25 January 1970,
and was married to-Lon Holt; and Johnnie Robinson who was married
to H. Clifford Hill. More information is given about this family in the
history of the Stokes family.
4 Sarah E. “Sallie” Robinson was born 9 June 1862 and died 29 July
1925. She was married to Dr. George W. Martin who was born 15
February 1847 and died 25 August 1909. They are buried at the
Tubb’s Cemetery at Temperance Hall. They were married about 1884
and were living in the 15th District of DeKalb County in 1900. They
were the parents of the following four children who were all born near
Temperance Hall:
Cora M. Martin who was born 3 August 1885 and died 12 May 1886;
Maggie May Martin who was born 16 January 1887, died 4 June
1918, and was married to Dr. Scuyler C. Robinson who was born 18
November 1874 and died 26 September 1953; George W. Martin who
was born 19 March 1889, died 4 August 1931, and was married to
Beulah Wright who was born 13 November 1890; and James R.
Martin who was born 19 September 1895 and died 13 October 1896.
5 Lizzie Robinson was born 5 September 1864 and died 25 April 1865.
She is buried at the Tubb’s Cemetery at Temperance Hall.
6 William Robinson was born about 1866. He was married to Fannie
Oakley. They were the parents of Allie Robinson, Minnie Robinson,
“Sugar” Robinson, and Bailey Robinson.
7 Sidney S. Robinson was born in September of 1868. He was married
to Anna Parker. In 1900, they were living in the 15th District of
DeKalb County. He was a merchant at Temperance Hall and served as
justice Of the peace. They were married about 1892 and were the
parents of James D. Robinson who was born in May of 1893, Edgar
A. Robinson who was born in January of 1895, Bessie Robinson who
was born in May of 1897, Dewey Robinson who was born in April of
1899, and possibly others.
8 Mattie Robinson was born 22 July 1870 and died 19 August 1899.
She was married to Rev. N. A. Anthony. They were the parents of
Elbert Anthony who was born in May of 1892 and Clarence Anthony
who was born in January of 1894 1894. In 1900, these two sons of
Rev. N. A. Anthony and Mattie (Robinson) Anthony were living in
the home of Dr. George W. Martin and “Sallie” (Robinson) Martin,
their uncle and aunt • Mattie (Robinson) Anthony is buried at the
Tubb's Cemetery at Temperance Rail.
9 Henrietta Robinson was born 16 May 1874 and died
22 August 1 1874. She is buried at the Tubb's Cemetery at
Temperance Hall.
(6) Mary J. Robinson was born about 1836. She was married in DeKalb
County on 10 December 1854 to James Reynolds.
I cannot find any information about them. They do not appear in any of
the records which I have searched.
(7) Louisa J. Robinson was born 15 April 1837 and died 7 November 1876.
She was married in DeKalb County on 26 September 1854 to Marion
Reynolds who was born about 1834 in Tennessee. They were the parents
of the following three children:
1 Martha M. Reynolds was born about 1855.
2. Tisha A. Reynolds was born about 1858.
3 William B. Reynolds was born about 1860. In 1880, he was living
in the 15th District of DeKalb County in the home of his
grandmother, Eliza J. (Harris) Robinson and his cousin, Charles E.
Robinson.
Marion Reynolds apparently died prior to 1870. In 1870, Louisa and her
three children were living with her parents John Robinson and Eliza J.
(Harris) Robinson, in the 15th District of DeKalb County. Louisa 3.
(Robinson) Reynolds was married secondly to Morgan Lawrence who was
born about 1824 and died after 1880. Apparently, they did not have any
children. Louisa J. (Robinson) Reynolds Lawrence is buried at the Tubb's
Cemetery at Temperance Hall.
11) Archer Robinson, son of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and Elizabeth (Holland)
Robinson, was born in Tennessee about 1800, probably near the present location
of Temperance Hall. He was their youngest child and was probably the first white
child to be born in the Temperance Hall area. He was known as "Archie," and his
name sometimes appears as Archibald. In 1822, the minutes of the Smith County
court reveal that Archibald Robinson was appointed guardian to Drucilla, Jonas,
and Ambrose Robinson, grandchildren of William Williams. The wife of Archer
Robinson was named Elizabeth. Her maiden name is unknown, and she was born
about 1810. In 1850, they were living in Itawamba County, Mississippi.
According to this census record, they were the parents of-the following children:
(1) Jane Robinson was born about 1832.
(2) Laura Robinson was born about 1833.
(3) John Robinson was born about 1840.
(4) Coleman Robinson was born about 1842.
8 William Robinson was born about 1844.
(6) Katherine Robinson
Archer Robinson does not appear in the census records for Smith County,
Tennessee, prior to 1840. Apparently, he lived in the house with his father,
Stephen, and is the male between thirty and forty years of age who was listed in
his father’s household in 1830.
Conclusion
This concludes the history of Stephen Robinson, Sr., his wife, Elizabeth, and
many of their numerous descendants. It would be impossible to even estimate the total
number of his descendants’ who are living throughout the United States today. Stephen,
the first settler to arrive near the present location of Temperance Hall, has many
descendants who live in that area today. Hopefully, more of them will now be able to
trace their ancestry back to Stephen Robinson, Sr., now that this history has been written.
If anyone has additional information on the life or descendants of Stephen Robinson, Sr.,
or if anyone wishes to make corrections of any mistakes contained in this history, please
contact: Jerry L. Winfrey, 307 South College Street, Smithville, Tennessee 37166.
Bibliography
1) Books:
Gilbert, Doris H. Cemeteries of DeKalb County, Tennessee. DeKalb County,
Tennessee, 1989.
Goodspeed Histories of Cannon, Coffee, DeKelb, Warren, White Counties of
Tennessee (reprint from the 1887 edition). McMinnville, Tennessee: The Ben
Lomond Press, 1972.
Grime, J. Harvey. History of Middle Tennessee Baptists.
1901—1902.
Hale, Will T. History DeKalb County, Tennessee (a facsimile reprint of the 1915
edition). McMinnville, Tennessee: The Ben Lomond Press, 1969.
Hayes, Marjorie, editor. Temperance Hall Remembers. Temperance Hall
Community Club, August 1, 1986.
Key, F. C., Sue Woodard Maggart, Jane Coward Turner. Smith County,
Tennessee, Cemeteries South of the Cumberland River. 1984.
Lindstrom, Joyce. United States Census of 1850, DeKalb
County, Tennessee (transcribed from a microfilm copy of the
original). Provo, Utah, 1965.
Parsley Jorene Washer. 1840 Census, DeKalb County Tennessee (from a
microfilm copy of the orignial). 1985.
_______• United Census1 1850, County,
Tennessee (from a microfilm copy of the original). (n. d.)
______• United States Census 1860, DeKalb County Tennessee (from a
microfilm copy of the original). 1979.
______• United Census1870, DeKalb County,
Tennessee (from a microfilm copy of the original). 1985.
______• United States Census 1880, DeKalb County, (from a microfilm copy of
the original). (n. d.)
_______• United Census1900, DeKalb County,
Tennessee (from a microfilm copy of the original). (n. d.)
Sistler, Byron. 1830 Middle Tennessee. Evanston,
Illinois: Byron Sistler & Associates, 1971.
Sistler, Byron and Barbara. DeKalb County Tennessee , Mar 1848-1880.
Nashville: August, 1985.
Tennessee State Library and Archives. Biographical Directory, Tennessee
General Assembly, 1796-1969, Cannon County and DeKalb County.
Nashville: 1970.
Webb, Thomas a. DeKalb County (Tennessee County History Series). Memphis:
Memphis State University Press, 1986.
2) Unpublished Census Records:
United States Bureau of the Census. Fourth Census of the
United States: 1820, Smith County, Tennessee.
_______• Fifth Census of United States: 1830, Smith
County, Tennessee.
______ Seventh of the United States: 1850, Smith
County, Tennessee.
______ Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, Wilson
County, Tennessee.
3) Courthouse Records:
Cumberland County, Virginia:
(1) Deed Books
(2) Will Books
DeKalb County, Tennessee:
(1) Marriage Records
Goochland County, Virginia:
(1) Marriage Records
(2) Will Books
Henrico County, Virginia:
(1) Deed Books
Louisa County, Virginia:
(1) Marriage Records
Orange County, Virginia:
(1) Marriage Records
Smith County, Tennessee:
(1) Court Minutes
(2) Marriage Records
(3) Will Books
4) People:
The following people have contributed to the information contained in this history
of Stephen Robinson, Sr., and his descendants. Hopefully, I have not railed to
mention any-one.
(1) Thelma (Tramel) Carter
(2) Charlie Campbell Driver
(3) Frankie (Gragson) Mason
(4) Opal (Nixon) Kyle
(5) Clara (Oliver) Malone
(6) Willie (Bates) Midgett
(7) Popie (Starnes) Oliver
(8) Sam J. Patterson
(9) Katherine Reynolds
(10) Esmerelda (Robinson) Smith
(11) Cleo (Driver) Tramel
(12) Thomas G. Webb
(13) Dessie (Helmontaller) Webster
(14) Bobby White
(15) Ruth (Thompson) White
(16) Annelle (Mrs. David C.) Underwood
(17) Era (Driver) Winfrey