Sunday, February 24, 2013

Native Occupation of Ohio River Lands, pre 1720 by Scott Preston Collins

Compiled by:
 From the Colorado University Siouan List, Dave Costa states,
“The term <acansa> got borrowed into Illinois early on as what appears to be a cover term for all the Dhegiha tribes. By the mid-19th century, kaansa is the Miami-Illinois term just for the Kansa tribe, and there are other terms for the Quapaw, Osage, etc. And yes, Bob is right, very early on, Illinois acquired a term essentially meaning 'Kansa/Dhegiha nut' as their word for 'pecan'; in LeBoullenger's circa-1720 Illinois dictionary, this appears as <acansipacane>, while Pinet's Illinois dictionary from 20 years before gives the plural <acansepacana>. By the late 19th century, this variably appears in Miami and Peoria as kaansa pakaani or kaanseeseemini. Shawnee has similar kaa0eemi 'pecan' ('0' = theta), which was later borrowed by Unami Delaware as ká•se•m (some speakers changed this to ká•nse•m).”

“And finally, the Miami-Illinois name for the Ohio River is literally 'the Kansa/Dhegiga River'; the most common variant seen is kaanseeseepiiwi. Shawnee also has this, as kaa0eewi0iipi.”

“I've assumed for a long time that what this means is that Miami-Illinois speakers and Shawnee speakers first encountered Dhegiha-speakers on the Ohio River, presumably in southern Ohio or maybe southern Indiana, at a time when they weren't seperated into their modern divisions yet, and when something sounding like /kaansa/ was their name for themselves. I also assume this is when the Algonquians first encountered pecans, or at least when they first encountered them in big numbers.”
Robert Myers from the same list states; “Thought I might share this if you haven't already seen it. This account is the earliest I've found recounting an Ohio River origin of Missouri River Siouan tribes. Written by James MacKay sometime between 1797 and 1822 but based on his 1797 trip up the Missouri River to trade with these peoples.”

"The Osage, Mahas, Poncara, Panies, & Ricara Tribes who lives on the Missouri & its Southern waters are the decendants of one nation or people who in Some Past ages lived on the River Ohio & tho time & Circumstances Separated them & brought the Language of each to differ much yet they understand each other So as to transact all business of small importance without Interpreters & they still Claim Kindred though they Sometimes Quarrel"

“…in: Charles E. Orser, Jr., "The Explorer as Ethnologist: James Mackay's 'Indian Tribes' Manuscript with a Test of His Comments on the Native Mortuary Customs of the Trans-Mississippi West, " Ethnohistory, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Winter, 1983): 15-33.

An interesting twist to this story is the statement that the Pawnee and Arikara were related to the Siouans. This is similar to the general migration story below published by Rev. J. Owen Dorsey in American Naturalist, Vol. 20, No. 3 (March 1886).”

"Since 1879 the writer has gained more definite information from other Ponkas, as well as from Omahas, Osages and Kansas, and it is now given. Ages ago the ancestors of the Omahas, Ponkas, Osages, Kansas, Kwapas, Winnebagos, Pawnee Loups (Skidi) and Rees, dwelt east of the Mississippi. They were not all in one region, but they were allies, and their general course was westward. They drove other tribes before them. Five of these peoples, the Omahas, Ponkas, Osages, Kansas and Kwapas, were then together as one nation. They were called Arkansa or Alkansa by the Illinois tribes, and they dwelt near the Ohio river. At the mouth of the Ohio a separation occurred. ..."

By New York State Historical Association

Saponickan and Sapohanican are the earliest forms of a name which appears later Sappokanican, Sappokanikke, Saponican, Shaw-backanica, Taponkanico, etc. “ A piece of land bounded on the north by the strand road, called Saponickan” (1629); “Tobacco plantation near Sapohanican” (1639); “Plantation situate against the Reed Valley beyond Sappokanican” (1640). Wouter van Twiller purchased the tract, in 1629, for the use of the Dutch government and established thereon a tobacco plantation, with buildings enclosed in palisade, which subsequently became known as “the little village of Sapokanican--- Sappokanican--- Van der Donck--- and later (1721) as Greenwich Village. It occupied very nearly the site of the present Gansevort market. The “Strand road” is now Greenwich Street. It was primarily, an Indian path along the shore of the river north, with branches to Harlem and other points, the main path continuing the trunk-path through Raritan Valley, but locally beginning at the ‘crossing-place’ or as the record reads, “Where the Indians cross [the Hudson] to bring their pelteries.” “South of Van Twiller's plantation was a marsh much affected by wild fowl, and a bright, quick brook, called by the Dutch ‘Bestavar's Kil’, and by the English ‘Manetta Water.’”( Half-Moon Series.) Saponickan was in place here when Van Twiller made his purchase (1629), as the record shows, and was adopted by him as the name of his settlement. To what feature it referred cannot be positively stated, but apparently to the Reed Valley or marsh. It has had several interpretations, but none that are satisfactory. The syllable pon may denote a bulbous root which was found there. (See Passapenoc.) The same name is probably met in Saphorakam, or Saphonakan, given as the name of a tract described as “Marsh and canebrake,” lying near or on the shore of Gowanus Bay, Brooklyn. (See Kanonnewage, in connection with Manhattan.)
Also see the following as to the name:
“Four dayes Journey from your forte Southerward is a town called Ononahorne, seated where the river Choanock divideth itself into three branches and falleth into the sea of Rawnocke in thirty five degrees. If you make your principall and choise seate you shall doe most safely and richly because you are in the heart of Lands open to the south and two of the best rivers will supply you, besides you are neare to with Copper mines of Ritane and may passe them by one branch of the river, and by another Peccareca- micke where you shall finde four of the Englishe alsoe, lost by Sir Walter Raweley, which escaped from the slaughter of Powhatan of Roanocke upon the first arivall of our Colony and live under the protection of a wiroano call’d Sepanocan enemy to Powhatan, by whose consent you shall never receive them, one of these were worth much laboar and if you finde them not, yet search into this contrey it is more probable than towardes the North.”
The Susquehannocks are first mentioned in the Voyages of Samuel Champlain for 1615, and he calls one of their some twenty villages "Carantouan". Carantouan was close to the New York and Pennsylvania border on the tributaries of the Susquehanna River on his map approaching towards the region from the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[15] Grant County, West Virginia, Hampshire County, West Virginia and Hardy County, West Virginia and Allegany County, Maryland[16] possess archaeological sites having Susquehannock Ceramics. A Susquehanna site is also located at Moorefield, West Virginia.

Was Carantouan located in Bradford County, PA? and Broom County, NY?

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