Monday, July 25, 2011

Chickasaw Nation


Family:Western Muskhogean
Macro-Culture:Eastern Woodlands
Speakers1,000 or fewer (1987 Munro and Willmond)
      The Chickasaw were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation of northern Mississippi and into neighboring states.  They were constantly at war with their closest relatives, the Choctaw, as well as other neighbors.  They were considered to be extremely capable warriors.
      A common practice of the Chickasaw was to adopt alien peoples.  They were one of the five major nations removed to the Indian Territory from the southeast in the 1830's.
Aboriginal Locations (# of Villages)
MS  (26)
TN  (1)
Present Locations
OK  Chickasaw Tribe, Ardmore
1540Met by De Soto who wintered with the tribe against wishes of Chickasaw who eventually rebelled against unacceptable Spanish demands and severely defeated De Soto's army
1560Joined by Napochi sometime after this year
1673Met a small party lead by Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet which was exploring the Mississippi near present Memphis
1682Robert LaSalle and Henri Tonti party stopped at Chickasaw Bluffs because LaSalle was ill, had extended contact with the tribe; party stayed across river with Chickasaw enemies the Quapaw on return trip
1685Henry Woodward established permanent trading post and sent two men overland to trade with Chickasaw
1690Choctaw-Chickasaw war, 1,800 Choctaw, 800 Chickasaw killed
1698British trader visits to Chickasaw villages routine; Chickasaw made slaving pact with the British supplying women and children of neighboring tribes in trade for arms
1702Tonti endeavored to establish friendly relations with Chickasaw for the French; leaders of the tribe were escorted through Choctaw territories by Tonti to visit Mobile
1703Chickasaw/Creek/Carolina alliance destroyed Apalachee
1704Choctaw-Chickasaw war revived
1705Chickasaw and Creek defeated Choctaw
1706Tribe split into pro-French and pro-British dissolving peace with French
1711Choctaw-Chickasaw war again revived with Choctaw being armed by French
1715Assisted Cherokee in driving Shawnee from Cumberland settlements
1717Chickasaw attacks on Caddo resulted in French arming Caddos and the creation of the Kadohadacho Confederacy; deer skins became popular trade commodity ultimately driving deer to near extinction in southeast
1720Choctaw began protracted war against Chickasaw
1723Chickasaw occupied Chickasaw Bluffs overlooking Mississippi River blocking French traffic on river; established a settlement near August, Georgia for more than 50 years, aided Georgians in war against Florida Spanish
1725Influx of 1,000 French colonists into Chickasaw territories along with Black slaves and a myriad of diseases
1730New Choctaw-Chickasaw war
1733Peace with northern Choctaw
1736Chickasaw closure of the Mississippi prompted an all out attack of the nation by the French with French and Illinois attacking from the north and French and Choctaw attacking from the south resulting in the greatest defeat ever suffered by the French at the hands of Native Americans
1739Second attack by French on Chickasaw resulted once again in failure a the disgrace of the French officers; Chakchiuma joined the Chickasaw; victories had nonetheless cost the Chickasaw three quarters of their population
1745Joined Cherokee in expelling a Shawnee band from Cumberland
1750Cherokee-Chickasaw war party seriously defeated Choctaw
1752Defeated French commander Benoist
1753Defeated French commander Reggio in alliance with Cherokee
1755Beginning of 14 years of skirmished between Cherokee and Chickasaw
1765British imposed a peace between Chickasaw and Choctaw
1769Chickasaw defeated Cherokee at Chickasaw Oldfields
1777Sided with the British in the Revolutionary War and closed the Mississippi to traffic
1781Kickapoo raided the Chickasaw on behalf of the Spanish; Fort Jefferson built by George Rogers Clark in Kentucky abandoned due to attacks by Chickasaw
1783Chickasaw made peace with the Americans at French Lick, Tennessee
1784Measles epidemic
1786Treaty at Hopewell establishing boundaries between Choctaws Piomingo (Mountain Leader) and Mingatuska (Hair Lip King) and United States; William Davenport brought the first American trading party to the Chickasaw which was ambushed by the Creek
1791Treaty ceding land
1792Severe drought cause crop failures
1794Treaty ceding land
1795Creek defeated in attack on Piomingo's Chickasaw
1805Treaty ceding land
1813Fought along side Andrew Jackson, Cherokee, and Choctaw against Creek in Creek War
1816Treaty ceding land
1818Treaty ceding land
1819Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist missions established among tribe
1830Andrew Jackson signed Removal Act
1832Treaty of Pontotoc ceded land east of Mississippi
1837Beginning of removal to Indian Territory; cholera epidemic
1856Tribe approved written constitution
1861Fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War
1888Texas cattlemen moved 150,000 cattle onto Chickasaw lands and refused to pay for grazing
1906Chickasaw nation dissolved
1963Tribe recognized under Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act
YearTotal PopulationMSOKTN

Mooney estimate
NAHDB calculation

Iberville estimate; Queen Ann's War

NAHDB calculation

Morse estimate

Porter estimate

US Indian Office

NAHDB calculation 


US Indian Office


BIA estimate

Alabama Indian Affairs Commission

NAHDB calculation 

Lee Sultzman
Other speakers of the same language:
Acolapissa, Bayougoula, Chakchiuma, Choctaw, Houma, Mobile, Napochi, Okelusa, Pascagoula, Pensacola, Tohome
Chickasaw Sites:
Black Indian History
Chickasaw Area Iindian Nation
Chickasaw Authors
Chickasaw Biz
Chickasaw Chiefs and Prominent Men
Chickasaw Historical Research Page
Chickasaw History
Chickasaw Indian Language
Chickasaw Indian Nation
Chickasaw Indian Online Records
Chickasaw Indian Tribe
Chickasaw Indian Tribe's History
Chickasaw Language
Chickasaw Linguistic Lineage
Chickasaw Nation
Chickasaw Nation
Chickasaw Nation
Chickasaw Nation 1837-1907 Indian Territory
Chickasaw Nation Capitol Timeline
Chickasaw Nation Constitution
Chickasaw People
Chickasaw Times
Chickasaw Treaty:  1805
Chickasaw Treaty:  1830
Chickasaw Treaty - 1852
Chickasaw Tribe
Dawes Rolls
Descendants of the Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes
Eloquent Protest of the Chickasaw Freedmen
Southeastern Woodlands Culture and Ethnobotany
Trail of Tears ...
Treaty of 1866:  Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations
Treaty with the Chickasaw - 1852
Whites in Indian Territory:  Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations
Last updated 10/07/07  Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press

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